A neural model of border-ownership from kinetic occlusion
Layton, Oliver W.
MetadataShow full item record
Citation (published version)Oliver W Layton, Arash Yazdanbakhsh. 2015. "A neural model of border-ownership from kinetic occlusion." VISION RESEARCH, Volume 106, pp. 64 - 80 (17). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2014.11.002
Camouflaged animals that have very similar textures to their surroundings are difficult to detect when stationary. However, when an animal moves, humans readily see a figure at a different depth than the background. How do humans perceive a figure breaking camouflage, even though the texture of the figure and its background may be statistically identical in luminance? We present a model that demonstrates how the primate visual system performs figure–ground segregation in extreme cases of breaking camouflage based on motion alone. Border-ownership signals develop as an emergent property in model V2 units whose receptive fields are nearby kinetically defined borders that separate the figure and background. Model simulations support border-ownership as a general mechanism by which the visual system performs figure–ground segregation, despite whether figure–ground boundaries are defined by luminance or motion contrast. The gradient of motion- and luminance-related border-ownership signals explains the perceived depth ordering of the foreground and background surfaces. Our model predicts that V2 neurons, which are sensitive to kinetic edges, are selective to border-ownership (magnocellular B cells). A distinct population of model V2 neurons is selective to border-ownership in figures defined by luminance contrast (parvocellular B cells). B cells in model V2 receive feedback from neurons in V4 and MT with larger receptive fields to bias border-ownership signals toward the figure. We predict that neurons in V4 and MT sensitive to kinetically defined figures play a crucial role in determining whether the foreground surface accretes, deletes, or produces a shearing motion with respect to the background.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Contribution of leaf specular reflection to canopy reflectance under black soil case using stochastic radiative transfer model Yang, Bin; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Zhao, Haimeng; Ma, Yuzhong (Elsevier Science BV, 2018-12-15)Numerous canopy radiative transfer models have been proposed based on the assumption of “ideal bi-Lambertian leaves” with the aim of simplifying the interactions between photons and vegetation canopies. This assumption may ...
Integrating archaeology and ancient DNA analysis to address invasive species colonization in the Gulf of Alaska West, Catherine; Hofman, Courtney A.; Ebbert, Steve; Martin, John; Shirazi, Sabrina; Dunning, Samantha; Maldonado, Jesus E. (WILEY, 2017-10-01)The intentional and unintentional movement of plants and animals by humans has transformed ecosystems and landscapes globally. Assessing when and how a species was introduced are central to managing these transformed ...
Petroff, A.; Murphy, J.G.; Thomas, S.C.; Geddes, Jeffrey A. (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018-10-01)Aerosol fluxes were measured by eddy-correlation for 8 weeks of the summer and fall of 2011 above a temperate broadleaf forest in central Ontario, Canada. These size-resolved measurements apply to particles with optical ...