PPARγ and LXR Signaling Inhibit Dendritic Cell-Mediated HIV-1 Capture and trans-Infection
Hanley, Timothy M.
Blay Puryear, Wendy
Viglianti, Gregory A.
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CitationHanley, Timothy M., Wendy Blay Puryear, Suryaram Gummuluru, Gregory A. Viglianti. "PPARγ and LXR Signaling Inhibit Dendritic Cell-Mediated HIV-1 Capture and trans-Infection" PLoS Pathogens 6(7): e1000981. (2010)
Dendritic cells (DCs) contribute to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and dissemination by capturing and transporting infectious virus from the mucosa to draining lymph nodes, and transferring these virus particles to CD4+ T cells with high efficiency. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced maturation of DCs enhances their ability to mediate trans-infection of T cells and their ability to migrate from the site of infection. Because TLR-induced maturation can be inhibited by nuclear receptor (NR) signaling, we hypothesized that ligand-activated NRs could repress DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission and dissemination. Here, we show that ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and liver X receptor (LXR) prevented proinflammatory cytokine production by DCs and inhibited DC migration in response to the chemokine CCL21 by preventing the TLR-induced upregulation of CCR7. Importantly, PPARγ and LXR signaling inhibited both immature and mature DC-mediated trans-infection by preventing the capture of HIV-1 by DCs independent of the viral envelope glycoprotein. PPARγ and LXR signaling induced cholesterol efflux from DCs and led to a decrease in DC-associated cholesterol, which has previously been shown to be required for DC capture of HIV-1. Finally, both cholesterol repletion and the targeted knockdown of the cholesterol transport protein ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) restored the ability of NR ligand treated cells to capture HIV-1 and transfer it to T cells. Our results suggest that PPARγ and LXR signaling up-regulate ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from DCs and that this accounts for the decreased ability of DCs to capture HIV-1. The ability of NR ligands to repress DC mediated trans-infection, inflammation, and DC migration underscores their potential therapeutic value in inhibiting HIV-1 mucosal transmission. Author SummaryHeterosexual transmission is the primary mode of HIV transmission worldwide. In the absence of an effective vaccine, there is an increasing demand for the development of effective microbicides that block HIV sexual transmission. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in HIV transmission by efficiently binding virus particles, migrating to lymph nodes, and transmitting them to CD4+ T cells, a process called trans-infection. In addition, DCs secrete proinflammatory cytokines that create a favorable environment for virus replication. DC maturation by pathogen-encoded TLR ligands or proinflammatory cytokines dramatically increases their capacity to capture HIV, migrate to lymphoid tissue, and trans-infect T cells. Here, we report that signaling through the nuclear receptors PPARγ and LXR prevents DC maturation and proinflammatory cytokine production, as well as migration. In addition, PPARγ and LXR signaling prevents efficient DC capture and transfer of infectious HIV by increasing ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Our studies suggest that PPARγ and LXR may be targets for drugs that can inhibit specific aspects of HIV mucosal transmission, namely inflammation, migration, and virus capture and transfer. These findings provide a rationale for considering PPARγ and LXR agonists as potential combination therapies with conventional anti-viral microbicides that target other aspects of mucosal HIV transmission.