The effect of a putative acyl-CoA synthetase 5 inhibitor on lipid accumulation and insulin release from clonal pancreatic beta-cell
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It is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that 422 million people had diabetes worldwide in 2014, including 30.3 million people in the US. The cost of treating the disease is has tripled from 2003-2013 due to the increased number of patients. One of the genes strongly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TCF7L2 results in increased expression of long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) while deletion of this part of the TCF7L2 gene reduces ACSL5 mRNA level. The regulation of ACSL5 gene expression by the high risk TCF7L2 allele highlights the importance of investigating the role of ACSL5 in T2D. ACSL5 is one of a family of enzymes that activates FA to its CoA ester and is required for FA metabolism within cells. Mice lacking this protein have reduced fat mass and are more insulin sensitive. Chronic exposure of clonal pancreatic ß-cells to excess nutrients has been shown to result in increased intrinsic lipid droplets, reduced insulin content, a left-shift in glucose dose-dependent insulin secretion curve characterized by basal insulin hypersecretion (IH) and blunted glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). We tested the hypothesis that the use of a putative ACSL5 inhibitor (Adipo C) can reduce accumulated lipid droplets, rescue insulin content and reverse the left-shift in glucose dose-dependent insulin secretion curve. INS-1 (823/13) cells were cultured in either 4 mM or 11 mM glucose media representing physiological and excess nutrients environment. Adipo C (10-25 µM) was added to cells to both acutely (2 hrs) and chronically (72 hrs) inhibit ACSL5 activity. Thin layer chromatography with C11 Bodipy fatty acid (BFA) was used to detect acute fatty acid incorporation into neutral lipids. Nile red was used to visualize intrinsic lipid droplets inside cells. Intracellular Ca2+ activity was detected using fura 2. Insulin assay was measured by HTRF. Acute fatty acid incorporation and lipid accumulation were reduced in cells exposed to Adipo C. An Adipo C concentration dependent right shift of glucose dose-dependent insulin release and increased insulin content were observed. 11 mM glucose cells cultured in 25 µM Adipo C showed decreased intracellular Ca2+ activity at 3 mM glucose and increased Ca2+ activity at 12 mM glucose, which are characteristic of cells cultured in 4 mM glucose having reduced lipid stores. These results all indicate possible protective effects on -cells exposed to excess nutrients. Islets of T2D patients who have a physiologically elevated blood glucose level are exposed to a similar excess nutrient environment. Therefore, the results illustrated here warrant further research on Adipo C compound to explore its therapeutic potential on T2D.