U.S. Policy to Curb West European Nuclear Exports, 1974-1978
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Citation (published version)Jayita Sarkar. 2019. "U.S. Policy to Curb West European Nuclear Exports, 1974-1978." Journal of Cold War Studies, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp. 110 - 149. https://doi.org/10.1162/jcws_a_00877
After India’s 1974 nuclear test publicly demonstrated the proliferation risks of nuclear assistance, the United States increased its efforts to prevent nuclear exports to sensitive states. It faced challenges from its West European allies, France and West Germany, who pursued their commercial and strategic interests through nuclear assistance to third-party states like Pakistan, Brazil, India, and others. Despite multilateral efforts like the formation of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and bilateral negotiations with the supplier states’ governments, the presidencies of Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter, only obtained partial success on the nonproliferation front vis-à-vis these supplier states. The United States was relatively more successful with respect to Paris through concluding quid pro quo bargains but it was less effective with Bonn, to whom it had few ‘carrots’ to offer. Using newly declassified archival documents, this research sheds new light on U.S. nonproliferation policy and transatlantic relations during the superpower détente.