Association of vitamin D (1,25OHD, 25OHD and vitamin D binding protein) and alkaline phosphatase with orthodontic tooth movement and osteoblast function
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INTRODUCTION: In this study, we identified the association of Vitamin D with orthodontic tooth movement and the impact of Vitamin D 1,25OHD and 25OHD forms on osteoblast function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is comprised of two parts; a clinical and a laboratory part. In part I, saliva samples were collected from orthodontic patients each month for the first six months of orthodontic treatment along with casts at the beginning and the end of the study period. The samples were measured for Vitamin D binding protein (VitDBP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and correlated with clinical tooth movement using absolute change in irregularity index (II). In part II, osteoblasts were collected from the calvaria of 3-5 day old healthy wild-type mice and cultured with differing concentrations of 1,25OHD (1, 10 and 100nmol) and 25OHD (100, 200, 400 nmol). ALP, OPG, and RANKL were measured as outcomes of Vitamin D treatment of osteoblasts. Intracellular signaling in response to Vitamin D was assessed by identifying the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, p38 and NLK in primary osteoblasts. RESULTS: Measurement of salivary Vitamin D binding protein (VitDBP) showed that both low (<2.75 ng/ml) and high (>6.48 ng/ml) logVitDBP were associated with reduced tooth movement. There was no significant correlation between ALP levels and orthodontic treatment. Significant seasonal changes in VitDBP using a two-season year model were found with lower levels noticed in the summer (Mar-Sept) than in the winter (Oct-Feb) at p<0.05. A decrease in OPG production with higher concentrations of 1,25OHD and 25OHD with a corresponding increase in RANKL levels in primary osteoblast cultures was found. Similar to the clinical findings, ALP levels were not significantly affected by increasing concentrations of both 1,25OHD and 25OHD. The ERK 1/2 showed upregulation in response to treatment with 1,25OHD and downregulation in response to treatment with 25OHD concentrations. Meanwhile, p38 and NLK were affected by 1,25OHD and not by 25OHD. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical outcomes of orthodontic treatment are associated with a range of optimal Vitamin D binding protein (VitDBP) as detected in saliva. Different forms of Vitamin D affect osteoblast response and signaling differently.
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