Comparison of osseointegration in piezoimplants versus cylindrical implants
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BACKGROUND: Dental implants have been successful for the restoration of edentulous areas, but current techniques are inadequate in areas lacking sufficient bone volume. Piezoelectric surgery has shown encouraging effects on both osseous healing. A new wedge-shaped titanium PiezoImplant requires piezoelectric osteotomy. This study compares PiezoImplants to conventional threaded cylindrical shaped implants by microcomputed tomography and histology to assess osseointegration, tissue response, and alveolar ridge changes. METHODS: After 3 months post-extraction, 18 conventional cylindrical implants and 18 wedge-shaped PiezoImplants were placed using a split-mouth design in 3 adult mini pigs. The cylindrical implant sites were prepared for osteotomy with rotary instrumentation while the PiezoImplant sites were prepared with piezoelectric surgical inserts. One animal was sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post operation. Quantitative µCT and histological analysis evaluated bone volume, osseointegration, and post-operative cellular events. RESULTS: The results of a multivariable linear regression model demonstrated that the PiezoImplants, arch location, and time were significant factors on higher BV/TV percentage. Bone to implant contact (BIC) analysis by high resolution microscopy and histomorphometry indicated osseointegration though intimate contact between implants and adjacent alveolar bone in both groups. The tissue response displayed no evidence of abnormal healing and the PiezoImplant was classified as a non-irritant. CONCLUSION: The combination of piezoelectric osteotomy and newly designed PiezoImplants had favorable effects on wound healing and osseointegration compared to conventional cylindrical implants. These novel wedge-shaped implants may be beneficial for narrow ridge spaces without additional ridge augmentation. Further research is needed to establish clinical validity.