The relation between sleep disturbance and the size of the upper airway in children usint the acoustic pharyngometer/rhinometer
Alsadiq, Salam Ahmad
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OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relation between the size of the upper airway using the Acoustic Pharyngometry/Rhinometry and the sleep disorders in children. Methods: Children between the ages 3-18 years with or without sleep disturbance who attended the Pediatric dental clinic and Orthodontic clinic at Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine were evaluated to participate in the study. Based on BEARS questionnaires (sleep disturbance screening tool for pediatric patients) the participants were then divided to either the control or the case group. PSQ (pediatric sleep questionnaires) were used to evaluate the sleep pattern of the participating subjects. Subjects were then examined using the Eccovision Acoustic Pharyngometry (AP) and Acoustic Rhinometry (AR) (Hood Laboratories, Pembroke, MA) to obtain the airways measurements. RESULTS: Regression analysis of the Acoustic Pharyngometry measurements showed statistical significant differences in the Pharyngometry Minimum cross sectional area (PMCSA) between children with sleep disturbance and children without sleep disturbance after adjusting for gender, race and age (p=0.01). The analysis of the Rhinometry volume (RV) showed statistical significant results between children with sleep disturbance and children without sleep disturbance after adjusting for gender, race and age (p<0.05). Regression analysis of air resistance (RAR) showed statistical significant difference between children with sleep disturbance and children without sleep disturbance when controlling for gender, race and age (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: RV and PMCSA were significantly lower in children with sleep disorder breathing (SDB) compared to children without SDB.