Tailoring acoustic waves with metamaterials and metasurfaces
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Nowadays, metamaterials have found their places in different branches of wave physics ranging from electromagnetics to acoustic waves. Acoustic metamaterials are sub-wavelength structures in which their effective acoustic properties are dominated by their structural shape rather than their constitutive materials. In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have gained increasing interest due to numerous promising applications such as sub-wavelength imaging, perfect absorption, acoustic cloaking, etc. The focus of the work herein is to leverage acoustic metamaterial/metasurface structures to manipulate the acoustic wavefront to pave the road for future applications of the metamaterials. In the first part of the work, the metamaterial structure is introduced, which can be leveraged for better manipulation of the transmitted wave by modulating both phase and amplitude. Initially, a general bound on the transmission phase/amplitude space for the case of arbitrary metasurface has been presented and subsequently, the necessary condition for the complete modulation of the transmitted wave is investigated. Next, a horn-like space coiling metamaterial is introduced, which satisfied the aforementioned condition and enabled us to simultaneously modulate both the phase and amplitude of the transmitted wave. Furthermore, our initial efforts toward designing a metamaterial capable of real-time phase modulation with relatively constant amplitude will be discussed. In the second part of this work, a novel metamaterial-based methodology is presented for the design of the air-permeable acoustic silencer. In this work, the concept of the bilayer-transverse metamaterial is introduced, and its functionality for silencing the acoustic wave is demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown that the methodology presented herein essentially does not limit the ratio of the open area, and ultra-open metamaterial silencers may be designed. Eventually, based on the presented methodology, the ultra-open metamaterial featuring nearly 60% open area is designed, and silencing capacity of about 94% at the targeted frequency is experimentally realized. In the last part of this work, the behavior of a locally resonant class of acoustic metamaterial in the non-Rayleigh regime has been explored. Elaborately, it is demonstrated that in the case of spherical inclusion in a matrix material, large variation in the effective acoustic impedance emerges near the inclusion’s Eigenmode. Eventually, the potential application of this novel phenomenon in the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and ultrasound imaging is discussed.
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