The relationship between adiposity indices, dental development and skeletal maturation in orthodontics
Bamashmous, Laila Said
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OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the association between different adiposity indices, dental development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 115 patients who presented to the orthodontic clinics at Boston University were examined for their height, weight, skeletal maturation, and 10 different adiposity indices. Statistical analysis included chi-square, ANOVA, and multiple ordinal regression models. RESULTS: In the sample (59% female, 41% male) the mean age was 14 years, (SD:2.5), height 160 cm (SD:11.9), weight 61 kg (SD:19.1), and ethnicity was 31% African Americans, 31% Hispanics, 27% Caucasians, and 9% Asians. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed SMI was significantly correlated with (by order of correlation strength) CVMI (P<.01), dental development according to Demirjian (P<.01), root completion (P<.01), eruption (P<.01), fat free mass (FFM) (P<.01), total body water (TBW) (P<.01), body adiposity index (BAI) (P<.01), BMI (P<.01), fat mass (P<.01), right subscapular skinfold (P<.01), BMI percentile (P<.01), fat percentage (P<.01), right triceps skinfold (P<.01), and waist/hip ratio (P<.01). For CVMI, it was significantly correlated in order of strength with SMI (P<.01), BMI % (P<.01), dental development (Demirjian) (P<.01), root completion (P<.01), eruption (P<.01), FFM (P<.01), TBW (P<.01), BAI (P<.01), waist/hip ratio (P<.01), BMI (P<.01), fat mass (P<.01) and right subscapular skinfold (P<.01). However, the Waist/Height ratio was not significantly related with either methods of skeletal assessment. Using the Chisquare test, we found that no adiposity index was statistically significant predictor of any dental outcome (i.e., dental development by Demirjian, root completion and eruption sequence) except for dental development (Demirjian) which was statistically significantly related with the waist/hip ratio. After controlling for other covariates (i.e., age and gender) for skeletal outcomes, all adiposity indices were statistically significant predictors for SMI including BMI percentile, BMI, BAI, fat percentage, fat mass, FFM, TBW, BIA, and waist/height ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with increased adiposity values (i.e., BMI percentile, BMI, BAI, fat percentage, fat mass, FFM, TBW, BIA, and waist/height ratio), had higher probability of being skeletally more mature as measured by SMI.