Surface chemistry and morphology in single particle optical imaging
Sevenler, Derin Deniz
Unlu, Nese Lortlar
Unlu, M Selim
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Citation (published version)Fulya Ekiz-Kanik, Derin Deniz Sevenler, Nese Lortlar Unlu, Marcella Chiari, M Selim Unlu. 2017. "Surface chemistry and morphology in single particle optical imaging." NANOPHOTONICS, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp. 713 - 730 (18). https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2016-0184
Biological nanoparticles such as viruses and exosomes are important biomarkers for a range of medical conditions, from infectious diseases to cancer. Biological sensors that detect whole viruses and exosomes with high specificity, yet without additional labeling, are promising because they reduce the complexity of sample preparation and may improve measurement quality by retaining information about nanoscale physical structure of the bio-nanoparticle (BNP). Towards this end, a variety of BNP biosensor technologies have been developed, several of which are capable of enumerating the precise number of detected viruses or exosomes and analyzing physical properties of each individual particle. Optical imaging techniques are promising candidates among broad range of label-free nanoparticle detectors. These imaging BNP sensors detect the binding of single nanoparticles on a flat surface functionalized with a specific capture molecule or an array of multiplexed capture probes. The functionalization step confers all molecular specificity for the sensor’s target but can introduce an unforeseen problem; a rough and inhomogeneous surface coating can be a source of noise, as these sensors detect small local changes in optical refractive index. In this paper, we review several optical technologies for label-free BNP detectors with a focus on imaging systems. We compare the surface-imaging methods including dark-field, surface plasmon resonance imaging and interference reflectance imaging. We discuss the importance of ensuring consistently uniform and smooth surface coatings of capture molecules for these types of biosensors and finally summarize several methods that have been developed towards addressing this challenge.