Analysis of dynamic memory bandwidth regulation in multi-core real-time systems
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Citation (published version)Ankit Agrawal, Renato Mancuso, Rodolfo Pellizzoni, Gerhard Fohler. 2018. "Analysis of Dynamic Memory Bandwidth Regulation in Multi-core Real-Time Systems." 2018 39TH IEEE REAL-TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM (RTSS 2018). 39th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS). Nashville, TN, 2018-12-11 - 2018-12-14. https://doi.org/10.1109/RTSS.2018.00040
One of the primary sources of unpredictability in modern multi-core embedded systems is contention over shared memory resources, such as caches, interconnects, and DRAM. Despite significant achievements in the design and analysis of multi-core systems, there is a need for a theoretical framework that can be used to reason on the worst-case behavior of real-time workload when both processors and memory resources are subject to scheduling decisions. In this paper, we focus our attention on dynamic allocation of main memory bandwidth. In particular, we study how to determine the worst-case response time of tasks spanning through a sequence of time intervals, each with a different bandwidth-to-core assignment. We show that the response time computation can be reduced to a maximization problem over assignment of memory requests to different time intervals, and we provide an efficient way to solve such problem. As a case study, we then demonstrate how our proposed analysis can be used to improve the schedulability of Integrated Modular Avionics systems in the presence of memory-intensive workload.