Squeezing in the weakly interacting uniform Bose-Einstein condensate
Ruckenstein, Andrei E.
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Citation (published version)Masudul Haque, Andrei E Ruckenstein. 2006. "Squeezing in the weakly interacting uniform Bose-Einstein condensate." PHYSICAL REVIEW A, Volume 74, Issue 4, pp. ? - ? (8). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.74.043622
We investigate the presence of squeezing in the weakly repulsive uniform Bose gas, in both the condensate mode and in the nonzero opposite-momenta mode pairs, using two different variational formulations. We explore the U(1) symmetry breaking and Goldstone’s theorem in the context of a squeezed coherent variational wave function and present the associated Ward identity. We show that squeezing of the condensate mode is absent at the mean field Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov level and emerges as a result of fluctuations about mean field as a finite volume effect, which vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. On the other hand, the squeezing of the excitations about the condensate survives the thermodynamic limit and is interpreted in terms of density-phase variables using a number-conserving formulation of the interacting Bose gas.