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dc.contributor.authorZikopoulos, Basilisen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Xuefengen_US
dc.contributor.authorTepe, Justinen_US
dc.contributor.authorTrutzer, Irisen_US
dc.contributor.authorJohn, Yohan J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBarbas, Helenen_US
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-06T13:26:32Z
dc.date.available2019-11-06T13:26:32Z
dc.date.issued2018-11-01
dc.identifierhttp://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000450724300007&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=6e74115fe3da270499c3d65c9b17d654
dc.identifier.citationBasilis Zikopoulos, Xuefeng Liu, Justin Tepe, Iris Trutzer, Yohan J John, Helen Barbas. 2018. "Opposite development of short- and long-range anterior cingulate pathways in autism." ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA, Volume 136, Issue 5, pp. 759 - 778. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-018-1904-1
dc.identifier.issn0001-6322
dc.identifier.issn1432-0533
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2144/38433
dc.description.abstractAutism has been linked with the changes in brain connectivity that disrupt neural communication, especially involving frontal networks. Pathological changes in white matter are evident in adults with autism, particularly affecting axons below the anterior cingulate cortices (ACC). It is still unknown whether axon pathology appears early or late in development and whether it changes or not from childhood through adulthood. To address these questions, we examined typical and pathological development of about 1 million axons in post-mortem brains of children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism (ages 3–67 years). We used high-resolution microscopy to systematically sample and study quantitatively the fine structure of myelinated axons in the white matter below ACC. We provide novel evidence of changes in the density, size and trajectories of ACC axons in typical postnatal development from childhood through adulthood. Against the normal profile of axon development, our data revealed lower density of myelinated axons that connect ACC with neighboring cortices in children with autism. In the course of development the proportion of thin axons, which form short-range pathways, increased significantly in individuals with autism, but remained flat in controls. In contrast, the relative proportion of thick axons, which form long-range pathways, increased from childhood to adulthood in the control group, but decreased in autism. Our findings provide a timeline for profound changes in axon density and thickness below ACC that affect axon physiology in a direction suggesting bias in short over distant neural communication in autism. Importantly, measures of axon density, myelination, and orientation provide white matter anisotropy/diffusivity estimates at the level of single axons. The structural template established can be used to compare with measures obtained from imaging in living subjects, and guide analysis of functional and structural imaging data from humans for comparison with pathological states.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipSupported by grants from NIMH (R01MH101209) and Autism Speaks (#2156) received by BZ. (R01MH101209 - NIMH; 2156 - Autism Speaks)en_US
dc.format.extent759 - 778en_US
dc.languageEnglish
dc.publisherSPRINGERen_US
dc.relation.ispartofACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2018. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectLife sciences & biomedicineen_US
dc.subjectClinical neurologyen_US
dc.subjectNeurosciencesen_US
dc.subjectPathologyen_US
dc.subjectNeurosciences & neurologyen_US
dc.subjectWhite matteren_US
dc.subjectAxonen_US
dc.subjectPrefrontal cortexen_US
dc.subjectMyelinen_US
dc.subjectFractional anisotropyen_US
dc.subjectAdolescenten_US
dc.subjectAdulten_US
dc.subjectAgeden_US
dc.subjectAutistic disorderen_US
dc.subjectAutopsyen_US
dc.subjectAxonsen_US
dc.subjectChilden_US
dc.subjectChild, preschoolen_US
dc.subjectFemaleen_US
dc.subjectGyrus cingulien_US
dc.subjectHumansen_US
dc.subjectMaleen_US
dc.subjectMicroscopy, electron, transmissionen_US
dc.subjectMiddle ageden_US
dc.subjectNerve neten_US
dc.subjectNeurogliaen_US
dc.subjectNeuronsen_US
dc.subjectYoung adulten_US
dc.subjectClinical sciencesen_US
dc.subjectNeurology & neurosurgeryen_US
dc.titleOpposite development of short- and long-range anterior cingulate pathways in autismen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00401-018-1904-1
pubs.elements-sourceweb-of-scienceen_US
pubs.notesEmbargo: Not knownen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston Universityen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent Collegeen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent College, Health Sciencesen_US
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden_US
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0003-0825-0832 (Barbas, Helen)
dc.identifier.mycv398787


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Copyright © The Author(s) 2018. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate
credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the
Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © The Author(s) 2018. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.