Chromosomal aberrations in high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer in African American men
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Recent advances in whole genome sequencing have led to many discoveries in the mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. Genomic characterization of premalignant lesions in numerous cancers has led to new prevention strategies, early detection, and treatment options that have saved lives and improved the quality of life for the people suffering from these cancers. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men in the United States (US) and the second leading cause of death in men from all cancers. However, in African American men (AAM) the mortality rate from PCa is 2.4 times higher than European American men (EAM). In addition, AAM are more likely to get PCa and have a higher PCa burden at diagnosis than their EAM counterparts. This may suggest that there are racial/ethnic differences in the mechanism of carcinogenesis in PCa. PCa and its premalignant lesion, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), are one of the most heterogeneous and complex cancers for scientists to determine the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Due to this complexity, research on HGPIN and PCa has been difficult to carry out and interpret. Projects have been undertaken and progress has been made in the discovery of some genes involved in PCa and potential drivers of initiation, progression and aggressiveness of PCa. However, these studies have mostly been conducted among EAM and have little ethnic diversity. Discovery of new prevention, early detection and treatment methods for PCa will not be possible without advances in the genetic characterization of the pathways of carcinogenesis of PCa among ethnically diverse study populations. To date there are no known genetic characterizations of HGPIN and PCa in AAM. This study aims to characterize chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNA) in paired HGPIN and PCa in AAM. By utilizing advanced microarray techniques, we will determine the degree to which HGPIN and PCa share CNA and identify CNA that may be involved in PCa progression. This study will lay the foundation for future research into CNA that may be used as potential biomarkers for early detection of neoplasms of high-risk for development into PCa in AAM. The discovery of biomarkers and the characterization of the mechanisms involved in PCa progression may lead to treatment options for the prevention of PCa and an overall better outcome for AAM suffering from PCa.