Evaluation of D-dimer in postmortem blood using the SERATEC PMB Test
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Biological material is a common type of evidence found at a crime scene, and body fluid identification is an essential process in crime scene investigation. One of the most common types of body fluids found is blood. After a stain has been presumptively identified as blood through the use of a colorimetric chemical test, additional testing may be necessary to better characterize the stain. SERATEC PMB Test is a relatively new lateral flow immunochromatographic assay that targets human hemoglobin and D-dimer simultaneously in order to distinguish peripheral blood and menstrual blood at the same time. Elevated levels of D-dimer, a fibrin degradation product, are found in menstrual blood, thrombosis formation and as part of the postmortem process. A previous study investigated levels of D-dimer in menstrual, peripheral and postmortem blood using the SERATEC PMB Test. In this study, all postmortem blood samples showed positive results for both hemoglobin and D-dimer; all peripheral bloodstain samples from living individuals showed positive results for hemoglobin detection, and negative results for D-dimer detection; and most menstrual bloodstain samples showed positive D-dimer results. The results suggest that this assay could be considered a presumptive test for both postmortem blood and menstrual blood. However, as D-dimer concentrations vary between individuals, additional testing is necessary to conclusively distinguish postmortem blood, menstrual blood and peripheral blood from living individuals with especially high D-dimer levels.