Association between IL-1 genotypes and periodontal disease within a well controlled diabetic population
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Introduction: Periodontal disease is a recognized complication of diabetes mellitus. Periodontal disease is a collection of chronic inflammatory diseases that are caused by specific bacteria. Although bacteria are essential for the initiation of periodontitis, the quantity and types of bacteria have not been sufficient to explain the differences in disease severity. In recent years it has become evident that for many common chronic diseases, there are modifying factors that do not cause the disease but rather amplify some disease mechanisms to make the clinical condition more severe. There are now data to suggest that a few factors, which amplify the inflammatory process, such as diabetes, smoking, and genetic influences, make people susceptible or at a relatively high risk for increased severity of periodontitis. Objectives: The aim of this report was to investigate the prevalence of periodontal disease in a well-controlled diabetic population, and to establish its association with IL-1 genotypes. Methods: One hundred diabetic patients were randomly screened at the endocrinology clinic of Boston University Medical Center. Periodontal probing measurements were made and type of diabetes, duration of diabetes, level of control (glycosylated hemoglobin) and demographic data were recorded. Periodontal disease was defined as two or more teeth with periodontal pockets of 5 or more mm depth. Finger-Stick blood samples were collected and analyzed at the Department of Molecular Genetics and Medicine at the University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, for genotyping of IL-1[alpha] (+4845), IL-1P (+3954), IL-1[Beta] (-51 1), and IL-1ra (+2018) polymorphisms. For subjects to be positive for the composite IL-1 genotype they must have at least one copy of allele 2 at each of 2 specific polymorphism in the cluster of IL-1 genes found on chromosome 2. Results: The association between periodontal disease and genotype was determined using Fisher's exact test. Among the diabetic patients in the study, only IL-1[Beta] (-511) genotype (1.2 and 2.2 vs. 1.1) was found to be associated with periodontal disease in the African-American patients (p[less than]0.05). The frequency of allele 1 was 0.77 in periodontitis affected vs. 0.33 in healthy diabetics. A borderline significant association between IL-1[Beta] (+3954) and periodontal disease was also noted in Caribbean periodontal patients (p=0.06); however, the allele 2 frequency in this population was only 10%. Conclusions: These data confirm the high prevalence of periodontitis in the diabetic population and suggest that disease prevalence is not greatly affected by level of diabetic control. Besides, periodontal disease should be considered a potential complication of diabetes in evaluation of patients. Among diabetic patients, only IL-1[Beta] (-51 1) and IL-1[Beta] (+3954) genotypes were found to have a tendency of association with periodontal disease.
PLEASE NOTE: This work is protected by copyright. Downloading is restricted to the BU community: please click Download and log in with a valid BU account to access. If you are the author of this work and would like to make it publicly available, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.Thesis (M.Sc.D.)--Boston University, Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, 2001 (Periodontology).Includes bibliographical references (leaves 75-90).
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