Bone mechanical properties in healthy and diseased states
Morgan, Elise F.
Unnikrishnan, Ginu U.
Hussein, Amira I.
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Citation (published version)E.F. Morgan, G.U. Unnikrishnan, A.I. Hussein. 2018. "Bone mechanical properties in healthy and diseased states."
The mechanical properties of bone are fundamental to the ability of our skeletons to support movement and to provide protection to our vital organs. As such, deterioration in mechanical behavior with aging and/or diseases such as osteoporosis and diabetes can have profound consequences for individuals’ quality of life. This article reviews current knowledge of the basic mechanical behavior of bone at length scales ranging from hundreds of nanometers to tens of centimeters. We present the basic tenets of bone mechanics and connect them to some of the arcs of research that have brought the field to recent advances. We also discuss cortical bone, trabecular bone, and whole bones, as well as multiple aspects of material behavior, including elasticity, yield, fracture, fatigue, and damage. We describe the roles of bone quantity (e.g., density, porosity) and bone quality (e.g., cross-linking, protein composition), along with several avenues of future research.
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