Surface modification of stainless steel for biomedical applications: revisiting a century-old material
Duncanson, Wynter J.
Azevedo, Helena S.
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Citation (published version)Aliya Bekmurzayeva, Wynter J Duncanson, Helena S Azevedo, Damira Kanayeva. 2018. "Surface modification of stainless steel for biomedical applications: Revisiting a century-old material." Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 93, pp. 1073 - 1089. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2018.08.049
Stainless steel (SS) has been widely used as a material for fabricating cardiovascular stents/valves, orthopedic prosthesis, and other devices and implants used in biomedicine due to its malleability and resistance to corrosion and fatigue. Despite its good mechanical properties, SS (as other metals) lacks biofunctionality. To be successfully used as a biomaterial, SS must be made resistant to the biological environment by increasing its anti-fouling properties, preventing biofilm formation (passive surface modification), and imparting functionality for eluting a specific drug or capturing selected cells (active surface modification); these features depend on the final application. Various physico-chemical techniques, including plasma vapor deposition, electrochemical treatment, and attachment of different linkers that add functional groups, are used to obtain SS with increased corrosion resistance, improved osseointegration capabilities, added hemocompatibility, and enhanced antibacterial properties. Existing literature on this topic is extensive and has not been covered in an integrated way in previous reviews. This review aims to fill this gap, by surveying the literature on SS surface modification methods, as well as modification routes tailored for specific biomedical applications. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Stainless steel (SS) is widely used in many biomedical applications including bone implants and cardiovascular stents due to its good mechanical properties, biocompatibility and low price. Surface modification allows improving its characteristics without compromising its important bulk properties. SS with improved blood compatibility (blood contacting implants), enhanced ability to resist bacterial infection (long-term devices), better integration with a tissue (bone implants) are examples of successful SS surface modifications. Existing literature on this topic is extensive and has not been covered in an integrated way in previous reviews. This review paper aims to fill this gap, by surveying the literature on SS surface modification methods, as well as to provide guidance for selecting appropriate modification routes tailored for specific biomedical applications.