Morphometric analysis of facial and skeletal structures and its relationship to attractiveness --
Parsi, Goli Kay
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Introduction: Orthodontic treatment planning originated by evaluation of the teeth only. Following the development of the cephalostat, the craniofacial skeletal features of the face were added. Subsequently, the effect of treatment on soft tissues was considered. Contemporary orthodontics, on the other hand, focuses more on facial esthetics, so treatment planning may be better served by evaluating the soft tissue first in an 'outward-in' fashion to determine what skeletal and dental treatment is needed to bring about the desired soft tissue changes. In order to accurately assess the craniofacial morphology a three-dimensional analysis is required and geometric morphometries appears to be the method of choice in assessment of the craniofacial shape.  0bjective: To establish a three-dimensional normative database and analysis by investigating the relationship between shape and facial attractiveness using Geometric Morphometrics. Methods: 108 photographs of skeletally mature Caucasian subjects were presented to 30 college students. These judges rated the attractiveness, symmetry and distinctiveness of these faces. In a previous study, 169 orthodontists rated the same images based on their 'facial balance'. A pixel-based pattern-recognition model was then used to discover the factors contributing to judgments of attractiveness and to predict attractiveness scores of an additional 215 photographs. Skeletal landmarks and semi-landmarks, soft tissue and dental landmarks were digitized on CBCT scans of these subjects. Then, CBCT scans of the subjects were analyzed for their morphometry using the `geomorph’ program. The same program was used to obtain an average shape from the attractive group. Procrustes superimposition technique was used to compare random CBCT scans with the average shape. Results: We found that the most attractive and the least attractive groups occupy different areas in shape space and therefore are significantly different in shape at P[less than]0.05. A multivariate regression analysis between the shape data and attractiveness scores of the most attractive and the least attractive groups showed a significant relationship (R = 0.084). Conclusion: Geometric morphometrics proved to be a valid tool in analyzing facial and skeletal shapes and establishing a baseline that can be used in diagnosis and planning of orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatments. Considering that most 2-D cephalometric analyses are based on norms derived from patients with 'normal dental occlusion', our 3-D analysis that is based on facial attractiveness supports the contemporary 'outward-in' trend in orthodontic and orthognathic surgery fields
PLEASE NOTE: This work is protected by copyright. Downloading is restricted to the BU community: please click Download and log in with a valid BU account to access. If you are the author of this work and would like to make it publicly available, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.Thesis (DScD) --Boston University, Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, 2014 (Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics).Includes bibliographic references: leaves 89-95.
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