Ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction and amplification from 3500-year-old charred economic crop seeds from Kaymakçı in Western Turkey: comparative sequence analysis using the 26S rDNA gene
Değirmenci, Funda O.
Roosevelt, Christopher H.
Marston, John M.
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Citation (published version)Asiye Ciftci, Funda O Değirmenci, Christina Luke, Christopher H Roosevelt, John M Marston, Zeki Kaya. 2019. "Ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction and amplification from 3500-year-old charred economic crop seeds from Kaymakçı in Western Turkey: comparative sequence analysis using the 26S rDNA gene." Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, Volume 66, Issue 6, pp. 1279 - 1294. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-019-00783-9
Ancient DNA (aDNA) from 3500–4000 year old seeds of Triticum aestivum or T. durum, Vicia ervillia, Cicer arietinum and Vitis vinifera excavated from the archaeological site of Kaymakçı was successfully isolated using various isolation methods. The genomic DNA of each species was amplified further using the aDNA of the seeds. Using the amplified ancient genomic DNA from the ancient seeds and their contemporaries, the sequence analysis of the 26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene was carried out comparatively. The results indicated that all seeds were identified correctly by the DNA sequence data from the 26S rDNA gene. The wheat seed from Kaymakcı was characterized as bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Comparative sequence analysis also revealed that specific base locations in the ancient 26S rDNA gene were either lost or substituted with different DNA bases due to continued domestication and breeding activities. This was more evident in sexually reproducing species than it was asexually reproducing species such as Vitis vinifera. Attaining of high amount and good quality of amplified genomic DNA from ancient seeds will further allow the investigation of the extent of genetic change (allelic loss, bottlenecks, etc.) between ancient seeds and their contemporary species in genetic diversity studies.
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