The historical origins of Tanzania's working class
Mueller, Susanne D.
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INTRODUCTION: This paper discusses the historical conditions which prevented the emergence of a strong capitalist ruling class along the Kenyan lines in Tanzania. In Kenya, a nascent big bourgeoisie controlled African political associations as early as the 1930s, while in Tanzania, teachers, traders, and clerks were the mainstay of the independence movement, with kulak farmers participating (Awiti, 1972; Bienen, 1969; Hyden, 1968; Maguire, 1969), but never predominating as a class "to the extent where they could become an important political force at the national level" (Shivji, 1976: 50). A productive class of capitalists thereby came to engineer the state in independent Kenya, while in Tanzania the dominant force rested with an unproductive "bureaucratic bourgeoisie," a class awkwardly termed and poorly understood. The result in the case of Kenya was a capitalism which matured along rather classic lines, that is by increasing the productivity of labor without resulting in absolute immiseration, whereas in Tanzania, capitalism was retarded along the lines suggested by the Narodniks with the predictable consequences of absolute pauperization described by Lenin. [TRUNCATED]
African Studies Center Working Paper No. 35
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