Robustness of network of networks with interdependent and interconnected links
Stanley, H. Eugene
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Citation (published version)Gaogao Dong, Lixin Tian, Ruijin Du, H. Eugene Stanley. 2013. "Robustness of Network of Networks with Interdependent and Interconnected links." https://arxiv.org/abs/1310.5205
Robustness of network of networks (NON) has been studied only for dependency coupling (J.X. Gao et. al., Nature Physics, 2012) and only for connectivity coupling (E.A. Leicht and R.M. D Souza, arxiv:0907.0894). The case of network of n networks with both interdependent and interconnected links is more complicated, and also more closely to real-life coupled network systems. Here we develop a framework to study analytically and numerically the robustness of this system. For the case of starlike network of n ER networks, we find that the system undergoes from second order to first order phase transition as coupling strength q increases. We find that increasing intra-connectivity links or inter-connectivity links can increase the robustness of the system, while the interdependency links decrease its robustness. Especially when q=1, we find exact analytical solutions of the giant component and the first order transition point. Understanding the robustness of network of networks with interdependent and interconnected links is helpful to design resilient infrastructures.