A Persian period bulla from Tel Qedesh, Israel and its implications for relations between Tyre and Nippur
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Citation (published version)Andrea Berlin, Baruch Brandl, Xiaoli Ouyang, Sharon Herbert. 2019. "A Persian Period Bulla from Tel Qedesh, Israel and Its Implications for Relations between Tyre and Nippur." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Volume 382, pp. 211 - 241. https://doi.org/10.1086/705702
In the 1999 season of excavation at Tel Qedesh, in northern Israel, a small, perfectly intact stamped bulla dating to the Persian period was found. The bulla originally sealed a papyrus document. Thanks to its excellent preservation, it is possible to identify a series of key aspects of the object: the motif and type of seal used to stamp it, the way the bulla was created, and even the way in which the original document was folded and tied. These details allow us to identify the probable origin and date of the seal and contextualize its associated bulla within the site of Qedesh. This evidence, in conjunction with information from the late 5th century b.c.e. Murašû archive in Nippur, allows us to suggest that the seal’s user may have been a person with Tyrian ties—perhaps a member of the Tyrian diaspora—who acquired his seal in Nippur and traveled to Qedesh where he used it to seal a document.
Rights"The final published version of this article appears in OpenBU with the permission of the publisher, University of Chicago Press."