A digital microarray using interferometric detection of plasmonic nanorod labels
Unlu, M. Selim
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Citation (published version)Derin Sevenler, George Daaboul, Fulya Ekiz-Kanik, M Selim Unlu. "A digital microarray using interferometric detection of plasmonic nanorod labels."
DNA and protein microarrays are a high-throughput technology that allow the simultaneous quantification of tens of thousands of different biomolecular species. The mediocre sensitivity and dynamic range of traditional fluorescence microarrays compared to other techniques have been the technology's Achilles' Heel, and prevented their adoption for many biomedical and clinical diagnostic applications. Previous work to enhance the sensitivity of microarray readout to the single-molecule ('digital') regime have either required signal amplifying chemistry or sacrificed throughput, nixing the platform's primary advantages. Here, we report the development of a digital microarray which extends both the sensitivity and dynamic range of microarrays by about three orders of magnitude. This technique uses functionalized gold nanorods as single-molecule labels and an interferometric scanner which can rapidly enumerate individual nanorods by imaging them with a 10x objective lens. This approach does not require any chemical enhancement such as silver deposition, and scans arrays with a throughput similar to commercial fluorescence devices. By combining single-nanoparticle enumeration and ensemble measurements of spots when the particles are very dense, this system achieves a dynamic range of about one million directly from a single scan.