Using high resolution optical imagery to detect earthquake-induced liquefaction: the 2011 Christchurch earthquake
Baise, Laurie G.
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Citation (published version)Vahid Rashidian, Laurie G Baise, Magaly Koch. "Using High Resolution Optical Imagery to Detect Earthquake-Induced Liquefaction: The 2011 Christchurch Earthquake." Remote Sensing, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp. 377 - 377. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12030377
Using automated supervised methods with satellite and aerial imageries for liquefaction mapping is a promising step in providing detailed and region-scale maps of liquefaction extent immediately after an earthquake. The accuracy of these methods depends on the quantity and quality of training samples and the number of available spectral bands. Digitizing a large number of high-quality training samples from an event may not be feasible in the desired timeframe for rapid response as the training pixels for each class should be typical and accurately represent the spectral diversity of that specific class. To perform automated classification for liquefaction detection, we need to understand how to build the optimal and accurate training dataset. Using multispectral optical imagery from the 22 February, 2011 Christchurch earthquake, we investigate the effects of quantity of high-quality training pixel samples as well as the number of spectral bands on the performance of a pixel-based parametric supervised maximum likelihood classifier for liquefaction detection. We find that the liquefaction surface effects are bimodal in terms of spectral signature and therefore, should be classified as either wet liquefaction or dry liquefaction. This is due to the difference in water content between these two modes. Using 5-fold cross-validation method, we evaluate performance of the classifier on datasets with different pixel sizes of 50, 100, 500, 2000, and 4000. Also, the effect of adding spectral information was investigated by adding once only the near infrared (NIR) band to the visible red, green, and blue (RGB) bands and the other time using all available 8 spectral bands of the World-View 2 satellite imagery. We find that the classifier has high accuracies (75%–95%) when using the 2000 pixels-size dataset that includes the RGB+NIR spectral bands and therefore, increasing to 4000 pixels-size dataset and/or eight spectral bands may not be worth the required time and cost. We also investigate accuracies of the classifier when using aerial imagery with same number of training pixels and either RGB or RGB+NIR bands and find that the classifier accuracies are higher when using satellite imagery with same number of training pixels and spectral information. The classifier identifies dry liquefaction with higher user accuracy than wet liquefaction across all evaluated scenarios. To improve classification performance for wet liquefaction detection, we also investigate adding geospatial information of building footprints to improve classification performance. We find that using a building footprint mask to remove them from the classification process, increases wet liquefaction user accuracy by roughly 10%.
RightsCopyright (c) 2019 Ariel Tichnor-Wagner. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited