Source shot noise mitigation in focused ion beam microscopy by time-resolved measurement
Berggren, Karl K
Goyal, Vivek K
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Citation (published version)Minxu Peng, John Murray-Bruce, Karl K Berggren, Vivek K Goyal. 2020. "Source shot noise mitigation in focused ion beam microscopy by time-resolved measurement.." Ultramicroscopy, Volume 211, pp. 112948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2020.112948
Focused ion beam microscopy suffers from source shot noise - random variation in the number of incident ions in any fixed dwell time - along with random variation in the number of detected secondary electrons per incident ion. This multiplicity of sources of randomness increases the variance of the measurements and thus worsens the trade-off between incident ion dose and image accuracy. Repeated measurement with low dwell time, without changing the total ion dose, is a way to introduce time resolution to this form of microscopy. Through theoretical analyses and Monte Carlo simulations, we show that three ways to process time-resolved measurements result in mean-squared error (MSE) improvements compared to the conventional method of having no time resolution. In particular, maximum likelihood estimation provides reduction in MSE or reduction in required dose by a multiplicative factor approximately equal to the secondary electron yield. This improvement factor is similar to complete mitigation of source shot noise. Experiments with a helium ion microscope are consistent with the analyses and suggest accuracy improvement for a fixed source dose by a factor of about 4.