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dc.contributor.authorMa, Dongzhuen_US
dc.contributor.authorJasinska, Annaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKristoff, Janen_US
dc.contributor.authorGrobler, J. Paulen_US
dc.contributor.authorTurner, Trudyen_US
dc.contributor.authorJung, Yoonen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchmitt, Christopheren_US
dc.contributor.authorRaehtz, Kevinen_US
dc.contributor.authorFeyertag, Felixen_US
dc.contributor.authorSosa, Natalie Martinezen_US
dc.contributor.authorWijewardana, Viskamen_US
dc.contributor.authorBurke, Donald S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, David L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTracy, Russellen_US
dc.contributor.authorPandrea, Ivonaen_US
dc.contributor.authorFreimer, Nelsonen_US
dc.contributor.authorApetrei, Cristianen_US
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-13T14:30:46Z
dc.date.available2020-05-13T14:30:46Z
dc.date.issued2013-01-01
dc.identifierhttp://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000314464600001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=6e74115fe3da270499c3d65c9b17d654
dc.identifier.citationDongzhu Ma, Anna Jasinska, Jan Kristoff, J Paul Grobler, Trudy Turner, Yoon Jung, Christopher Schmitt, Kevin Raehtz, Felix Feyertag, Natalie Martinez Sosa, Viskam Wijewardana, Donald S Burke, David L Robertson, Russell Tracy, Ivona Pandrea, Nelson Freimer, Cristian Apetrei. 2013. "SIVagm Infection in Wild African Green Monkeys from South Africa: Epidemiology, Natural History, and Evolutionary Considerations." PLOS PATHOGENS, Volume 9, Issue 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003011
dc.identifier.issn1553-7374
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2144/40815
dc.description.abstractPathogenesis studies of SIV infection have not been performed to date in wild monkeys due to difficulty in collecting and storing samples on site and the lack of analytical reagents covering the extensive SIV diversity. We performed a large scale study of molecular epidemiology and natural history of SIVagm infection in 225 free-ranging AGMs from multiple locations in South Africa. SIV prevalence (established by sequencing pol, env, and gag) varied dramatically between infant/juvenile (7%) and adult animals (68%) (p,0.0001), and between adult females (78%) and males (57%). Phylogenetic analyses revealed an extensive genetic diversity, including frequent recombination events. Some AGMs harbored epidemiological linked viruses. Viruses infecting AGMs in the Free State, which are separated from those on the coastal side by the Drakensberg Mountains, formed a separate cluster in the phylogenetic trees; this observation supports a long standing presence of SIV in AGMs, at least from the time of their speciation to their Plio-Pleistocene migration. Specific primers/probes were synthesized based on the pol sequence data and viral loads (VLs) were quantified. VLs were of 104 –106 RNA copies/ml, in the range of those observed in experimentally-infected monkeys, validating the experimental approaches in natural hosts. VLs were significantly higher (107–108 RNA copies/ml) in 10 AGMs diagnosed as acutely infected based on SIV seronegativity (Fiebig II), which suggests a very active transmission of SIVagm in the wild. Neither cytokine levels (as biomarkers of immune activation) nor sCD14 levels (a biomarker of microbial translocation) were different between SIVinfected and SIV-uninfected monkeys. This complex algorithm combining sequencing and phylogeny, VL quantification, serology, and testing of surrogate markers of microbial translocation and immune activation permits a systematic investigation of the epidemiology, viral diversity and natural history of SIV infection in wild African natural hosts.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by NIH grant R01OD010980 from the Office of Research Infrastructure Programs/OD (formerly R01RR016300 from NCRR) to NF and by NIH/NIAID/NCRR grants RO1 AI064066, R01 RR025781, P01 AI088564 to CA and IP. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. (R01OD010980 - NIH from the Office of Research Infrastructure Programs/OD; RO1 AI064066 - NIH/NIAID/NCRR; R01 RR025781 - NIH/NIAID/NCRR; P01 AI088564 - NIH/NIAID/NCRR)en_US
dc.format.extent18 pagesen_US
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.ispartofPLOS Pathogens
dc.rights© 2013 Ma et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en_US
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectScience & technologyen_US
dc.subjectLife sciences & biomedicineen_US
dc.subjectMicrobiologyen_US
dc.subjectParasitologyen_US
dc.subjectSimian immunodeficiency virusen_US
dc.subjectCD4(+) T-cellsen_US
dc.subjectNonhuman primate hostsen_US
dc.subjectMangabeys Cercocebus-atysen_US
dc.subjectIn-vivo replicationen_US
dc.subjectSooty mangabeysen_US
dc.subjectViral replicationen_US
dc.subjectGenetic diversityen_US
dc.subjectMandrillus-sphinxen_US
dc.subjectMolecular characterizationen_US
dc.subjectAnimalsen_US
dc.subjectBase sequenceen_US
dc.subjectChlorocebus aethiopsen_US
dc.subjectEvolution, molecularen_US
dc.subjectFemaleen_US
dc.subjectGenetic variationen_US
dc.subjectHost-pathogen interactionsen_US
dc.subjectMaleen_US
dc.subjectMolecular sequence dataen_US
dc.subjectMutation rateen_US
dc.subjectRecombination, geneticen_US
dc.subjectRepetitive sequences, nucleic aciden_US
dc.subjectSimian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromeen_US
dc.subjectSouth Africaen_US
dc.subjectInternational Vervet Research Consortiumen_US
dc.subjectCercopithecus aethiopsen_US
dc.subjectMolecular sequence dataen_US
dc.subjectMaleen_US
dc.subjectHost-pathogen interactionsen_US
dc.subjectImmunologyen_US
dc.subjectMedical microbiologyen_US
dc.subjectVirologyen_US
dc.titleSIVagm infection in wild African green monkeys from South Africa: epidemiology, natural history, and evolutionary considerationsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.ppat.1003011
pubs.elements-sourceweb-of-scienceen_US
pubs.notesEmbargo: No embargoen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston Universityen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Arts & Sciencesen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Arts & Sciences, Department of Anthropologyen_US
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden_US
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0003-2143-9226 (Schmitt, Christopher)
dc.identifier.mycv178005


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© 2013 Ma et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2013 Ma et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.