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dc.contributor.authorMiller-Rushing, Abraham J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPrimack, Richard B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, Nathanen_US
dc.contributor.authorKaufmann, Robert K.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-14T17:43:00Z
dc.date.available2020-05-14T17:43:00Z
dc.date.issued2012-09-26
dc.identifierhttp://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000309517300006&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=6e74115fe3da270499c3d65c9b17d654
dc.identifier.citationAbraham J Miller-Rushing, Richard B Primack, Nathan Phillips, Robert K Kaufmann. 2012. "Effects of Warming Temperatures on Winning Times in the Boston Marathon." PLOS ONE, Volume 7, Issue 9, 5 pp. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043579
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2144/40863
dc.description.abstractIt is not known whether global warming will affect winning times in endurance events, and counterbalance improvements in race performances that have occurred over the past century. We examined a time series (1933–2004) from the Boston Marathon to test for an effect of warming on winning times by men and women. We found that warmer temperatures and headwinds on the day of the race slow winning times. However, 1.6°C warming in annual temperatures in Boston between 1933 and 2004 did not consistently slow winning times because of high variability in temperatures on race day. Starting times for the race changed to earlier in the day beginning in 2006, making it difficult to anticipate effects of future warming on winning times. However, our models indicate that if race starting times had not changed and average race day temperatures had warmed by 0.058°C/yr, a high-end estimate, we would have had a 95% chance of detecting a consistent slowing of winning marathon times by 2100. If average race day temperatures had warmed by 0.028°C/yr, a mid-range estimate, we would have had a 64% chance of detecting a consistent slowing of winning times by 2100.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThe National Science Foundation provided funding for this project. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. (National Science Foundation)en_US
dc.format.extent5 pagesen_US
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherPUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCEen_US
dc.relation.ispartofPLOS ONE
dc.rights"This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone forany lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication."en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectScience & technologyen_US
dc.subjectMultidisciplinary sciencesen_US
dc.subjectRunning performanceen_US
dc.subjectDistance runnersen_US
dc.subjectWeatheren_US
dc.subjectWomenen_US
dc.subjectMenen_US
dc.subjectAthletesen_US
dc.subjectBostonen_US
dc.subjectFemaleen_US
dc.subjectForecastingen_US
dc.subjectGlobal warmingen_US
dc.subjectHumansen_US
dc.subjectLikelihood functionsen_US
dc.subjectMaleen_US
dc.subjectRunningen_US
dc.subjectTime factorsen_US
dc.titleEffects of warming temperatures on winning times in the Boston Marathonen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0043579
pubs.elements-sourceweb-of-scienceen_US
pubs.notesEmbargo: Not knownen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston Universityen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Arts & Sciencesen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Arts & Sciences, Department of Biologyen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Arts & Sciences, Department of Earth & Environmenten_US
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden_US
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0002-5670-7027 (Kaufmann, Robert K)
dc.identifier.mycv30518


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"This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone forany lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication."
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as "This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone forany lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication."