Newly discovered works of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in the Library of Congress
Dallas, Elizabeth S.
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The Library of Congress, Washington D.C., wons seven compositions in manuscript parts which are attributed to Carl Phillip Emanuel Bach by the library. Theses works are not listed in the catalog of Carl Phillip Emanuel Bach works compiled by Alfred Wotquenne. It is the purpose of this thesis to ascertain the authenticity of these works. The title of the seven major compositions as they appear on the title pages of the manuscripts are: 1.Concerto Cembalo, Violini Primo, Violino Secondo, Viola e Basso, Bach. 2.Concerto, Cembalo Concertato, Violino Primo, Violino Secundo, Viola e Basso, di Sig. Bach. 3.Concerto Cembalo, Violino Primo, Violino Secondo, Viola e Basso, C.P.E. Bach. 4.Sonata a 3 Strom, Flauto Traverso, Violino con Basso e Cembalo, D minor, Del Sigr. C.P.E Bach, Mastro da Capella a Hamourg. 5. Sonata E#, 2 Violini e Basson, Bach. 6. Trio, Flauto Traverso, Violino con Cembalo, Di Sigr. Bach. 7. Sinfonia a 3 voc., Violino Primo, Violino Secondo e Basso, di C.P.E. Bach In search for information concerning the works of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in general, historical survey books proved of little significance for specific information on collections of works of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. Books which contained thematic listings of the composer's works were of primary importance. These books are: Thematisches Verzeichnis der Werke von Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788), by Alfred Wotquenne; Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach und seine Kammermusik, by Ernst Fritz Schmid; and Philipp Emanuel Bach's musikalischer Nachlass, by Heinrich Miesner, Bach Jahrbuch, 1938, 1939, 1940-48. In conjunction with the search for background material and records, all manuscripts and published works of C.P.E. Bach were available to the writer were examined and studied in order to establish the stylistic characteristics of his work. The records available to the writer and the stylistic characteristics of the newly discovered unknown works will form the basis for authentication. In the process of transcribing the manuscript parts into full scores, an effort was made to copy each part as exactly as possible. Discrepancies which occurred in the parts are adjusted, and the figured bass is not realized. All changes and/or additions are marked in the scores as a footnote. Research through all the listings and thematic cataloging of C.P.E. Bach works that were available to this writer were conducted in order to establish the fact that the newly discovered works were traced as far as possible. For the purpose of comparison of stylistic characteristics of known works for C.P.E. Bach with the characteristics of the newly discovered works, three authentic works of the composer were analyzed: Concerto in d minor, Trio in B flat Major, and Sinfonia in e minor. C.P.E. Bach's creative life may be divided into three general periods- his early period in Leipzig and Frankfurt until 1738, the middle and transition period in Berlin from 1740 to 1768, and his late period in Hamburg from 1768 to 1788. The general development of his individual style is clear. His early works written in Leipzig and Frankfurt reflect a definite influence of his father, Johann Sebastian Bach. Specific instances may be cited, such as the chaconne of the structural elements of form, and "sigh figurations." The Berlin period shows the influence of the French galant element. Works from this period do not have a secondary theme; they have unity of one thematic idea and mood. Emanuel often uses "Lombard rhythm," voices frequently move in intervals of 3rds and 6ths, and unison passages are predominant. Mannheim suspensions occur frequently, as well as the expressive 7th chords. The instrumentation of works of this time favored the combination of flute and clavier. In the Hamburg period Emanuel's "sensibility" is the most predominant. Mannheim suspensions occur frequently, as well as the expressive 7th chords. The instrumentation of works of this time favored the combination of the flute and clavier. In the Hamburg period Emanuel's "sensibility" is the most predominant. He frequently uses the Rondo form and the Fantasia. "Lombard rhythm" and Mannheim suspensions are no longer present. The newly discovered works in the Library of Congress have each been analyzed in order to establish the existence of recognized stylistic characteristics of Emanuel Bach in them. Concerto in e minor: constructed in the classical concerto formula, this work reflects the characteristic harmonic scheme of Emanuel Bach. The first movement conforms to sonata form, but has only one theme for the entire movement. Unity of one thematic idea and mood is present. When the harpsichord is not playing a solo passage, it has a figured bass line. There are numerous passages in which all of the instruments play in unison. The movement has five different tutti passages and four solo passages. Sudden dynamic changes occur frequently. In the second movement, the material is treated in the concerto grosso style. The third movement 1s constructed in sonata form, having one theme. Concerto in A Major: constructed in the classical concerto formula, this work contains the characteristic harmonic scheme of Emanuel. The first movement, in sonata form, has one theme. Material from the theme is used by both the tutti and soli exhaustively. The second movement is also constructed in sonata form, and has a single theme. Interchange of the material between the tutti and soli occurs frequently. Sudden dynamic changes as well as alternated pizzicato and colli arco passages are present. There are four tutti sections in this movement. The third movement, in sonata form, has one theme. Frequent unison passages and sudden dynamic changes occur, as well as frequent unexpected rests. The bass is not figured at any time in this work. Freedom of form and especially idiomatic writing for the harpsichord is apparent. Concerto in g minor: this work is constructed in the classical concerto formula. The first movement, in sonata form, has one theme. The coda serves as transition to the second movement. In the second movement there is only one theme, but it is constructed in the concert grosso style. One thematic idea and mood is retained between the concertizing tutti and soli. Sonata form is used for the third movement, with one theme. The figured bass in the first movement has chaconne bass elements. A few unison passages are used, but the writing is predominantly contrapuntal. The number of tutti passages used is very small. Sudden dynamic changes and alternated pizzicato and coll'arco passages occur frequently. Sonata a 3 Strom: this work is written for two melody instruments and figured bass. Its construction and harmonic scheme is characteristic of Emanuel. In character and spirit there is a definite unity of idea and mood. The first movement is in a free form and has one theme. The writing for the flute and violin over a figured bass is contrapuntal. The "sigh figuration" and sudden dynamic changes are predominant, and a chaconne-like bass is used. Free form is also used for the second movement, as well as for the third movement. The instrumentation of this composition- flute, violin, and figured bass- was a favorite combination of Emanuel's. Frequent appearance of the voices moving in intervals of 3rds and 6ths occurs. Sonata in E Major: written for two melody instruments and bass, this work does not have a figured bass. The three movements are constructed in a basic AB form, and each one has a single theme. There is a marked unity of one thematic idea and mood. Mannheim suspensions are used, and the voices move in intervals of 3rds and 6ths. Sudden dynamic changes occur frequently. Trio in F major: this work is written for two melody instruments and and a fully figured bass. A free formal structure is used for the first movement, while the second and third movements have a basic AB form. There are no secondary themes in any of the movements, and there is a marked unity of one thematic idea and mood. The two melody instruments move almost constantly in intervals of 3rds and 6ths. Frequent "sigh figurations" and dialogue treatment of the material is present. Sinfornia a 3 voc., D Major: although this work is titled "Sinfonia," it is actually a trio sonata. It is written for two melody instruments and a figured bass. In the first movement the sonata form is used; in the second movement there is no definite form; and in the third movement the Rondo form is used. Fantasia elements are apparent in the second movement, and this movement serves as a transition between the first and third movements. The "sigh figuration" is a fundamental characteristic of the work. A few unison passages are used, and sudden dynamic changes occur frequently. The seven newly discovered works in the Library of Congress are correctly catalogues as Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. All of these works definitely reflect the stylistic characteristics of Emanuel. Stylistically they can be placed in specific periods, although the exact year of each composition can not be established. 1. Concerto in e minor- early to middle Berlin period. 2. Concerto in A major- Hamburg period. 3. Concerto in g minor- Leipzig period. 4. Sonata in 3 Strom- Leipzig period. 5. Sonata in E Major- late Berlin period. 6. Trio (in F Major)- early Berlin period. 7. Sinfonia a 3 voc., D Major- late Berlin period. The two works, Sonata in E Major and Trio in F Major, which Schmid lists as unauthenticated works, were written by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. The Library of Congress copies of these two works are a second and third copy, respectively. The Trio in F Major has been erroneously published as Wilhelm Friedemann Bach work. The work which bears the title "Sinfonia a 3 voc." os actually a trio sonata. These compositions are authentic works of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and constitute an important addition to the known works of the composer.
Thesis (M.A.)--Boston University, 1956