The Abraham Accords: the culmination of a decades-long normalization process between Israel and the UAE
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The United Arab Emirates (UAE) recently became the third Arab country and first Gulf state to advance an agreement normalizing relations with Israel—the first Arab nation to do so in 26 years. After United States President Donald Trump announced the historic deal on August 13, 2020, Bahrain quickly followed suit on September 11 with its own agreement to formalize ties to Israel. Leaders from Israel, the US, the UAE, and Bahrain ultimately convened at the White House on September 15 to officially sign the Abraham Accords, which established bilateral normalization agreements between Israel and its new Gulf partners, as well as inaugurated a new era in Middle East foreign policy. In addition to Bahrain, the UAE’s new partnership with Israel also allowed for Sudan and Morocco to normalize ties to Israel and join the Abraham Accords—albeit motivated by American incentives. Even Muslim-majority Kosovo took advantage of this shift in Israeli foreign affairs to establish diplomatic ties to Israel, and Bhutan—which does not even have official relations with the US or China—also recently normalized ties to Israel. 5 Many speculate that Oman, Saudi Arabia, or Tunisia may be next to take such steps.
Honors thesis. B.A. in International Relations, Spring 2021, Boston University.
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