Lightness induction enhancements and limitations at low frequency modulations across a variety of stimulus contexts
Vinke, Louis Nicholas
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Citation (published version)Louis Nicholas Vinke, Arash Yazdanbakhsh. 2020. "Lightness induction enhancements and limitations at low frequency modulations across a variety of stimulus contexts.." PeerJ, Volume 8, pp. e8918 - ?. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8918
Lightness illusions are often studied under static viewing conditions with figures varying in geometric design, containing different types of perceptual grouping and figure-ground cues. A few studies have explored the perception of lightness induction while modulating lightness illusions continuously in time, where changes in perceived lightness are often linked to the temporal modulation frequency, up to around 2-4 Hz. These findings support the concept of a cut-off frequency for lightness induction. However, another critical change (enhancement) in the magnitude of perceived lightness during slower temporal modulation conditions has not been addressed in previous temporal modulation studies. Moreover, it remains unclear whether this critical change applies to a variety of lightness illusion stimuli, and the degree to which different stimulus configurations can demonstrate enhanced lightness induction in low modulation frequencies. Therefore, we measured lightness induction strength by having participants cancel out any perceived modulation in lightness detected over time within a central target region, while the surrounding context, which ultimately drives the lightness illusion, was viewed in a static state or modulated continuously in time over a low frequency range (0.25-2 Hz). In general, lightness induction decreased as temporal modulation frequency was increased, with the strongest perceived lightness induction occurring at lower modulation frequencies for visual illusions with strong grouping and figure-ground cues. When compared to static viewing conditions, we found that slow continuous surround modulation induces a strong and significant increase in perceived lightness for multiple types of lightness induction stimuli. Stimuli with perceptually ambiguous grouping and figure-ground cues showed weaker effects of slow modulation lightness enhancement. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to the existence of a cut-off frequency, an additional critical temporal modulation frequency of lightness induction exists (0.25-0.5 Hz), which instead maximally enhances lightness induction and seems to be contingent upon the prevalence of figure-ground and grouping organization.
RightsCopyright 2020 Vinke and Yazdanbakhsh. Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 license.