The potential treatments of osteoporosis and hormone dysregulation caused by female athlete triad syndrome
Kelley, Mary Grace
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Female Athlete Triad Syndrome (FAT) is a metabolic disorder that presents as a dysregulation of energy availability, menstrual functioning, and bone health. This condition impacts a growing number of female athletes. The triad of physiological and endocrine disruption can develop into conditions of low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This state of interwoven dysfunction occurs in females who participate in endurance sports, excessive exercise, restrictive eating behaviors, or additional stressful situations. The focus of this review is to highlight the physiological implications of each aspect of the triad, delineate diagnostic tools, and analyze potential treatment options for those in need. Long term health consequences caused by FAT include cardiovascular disease, impaired reproductive capabilities, decreased bone mineral density, and mounting endocrine hormone dysregulation. Additional research is required to improve nonpharmaceutical and pharmaceutical interventions for FAT.