The geography of industry in the U.S.S.R.
Douglas, Melvin Henry
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The "Geography of Industry in the U.S.S.R." deals with the geographic distribution, the present structure and productive capacity, and the future potential of Soviet heavy industry. Each industry is treated separately, and a regional approach is used. The factors which affect the geography of specific industries are discussed, such as raw material needs, power requirements, etc. Attention is also given to the current industrial problems being faced by the Soviets, and the means by which they are trying to overcome these problems. The first group of industries discussed in the thesis are the fuel industries; coal, oil, lumber, and electric power. In all of these industries a general introductory statement precedes the regional information. The chapter on the coal industry contains information on coal reserves and mining throughout the U.S.S.R. Emphasis is given to the major coal fields and mining areas, such as the Donets Basin, Kuznets Basin, and Karaganda. The petroleum industry chapter, besides having general and regional information, has data on the productive capacities of most of the Soviet oil refineries. A great deal of attention is also given to the transport of oil within the country. The natural gas and oil-shale branches of the industry are included in this chapter. The lumber industry chapter follows the same general line as the other chapters already mentioned. The basic lumber industry, the plywood industry, and the wood-chemical industry are studied, but such items as paper production and furniture-making are omitted (belonging more properly to a work dealing with light industries in the U.S.S.R.). Electric power production in the Soviet Union is handled completely, with all the various sources of power being treated. The importance of hydroelectric power is stressed, and recent developments (such as the construction of new dams) appear in the chapter. The second group of industries taken up are the ferrous metallurgical, the tool and machine, and the transport machinery industries. The iron and steel industry is considered in great detail, since it is the most important one in the Soviet Union. Each region is investigated as to the raw material sources available for the industry, and iron ore deposits are in particular discussed fully. The structures of the individual iron and steel works are taken up, and the metallurgical equipment and productive capacities related to each are mentioned. Facts on the planned expansion of iron and steel production to new areas also appear in the chapter. Following the chapter on iron and steel two chapters are found which deal with tool and machine output in the U.S.S.R. The geography of all sorts of tool and machine production is studied (such as agricultural, metallurgical, and transport machine-building). A separate chapter is devoted to transport machinery, and the motor vehicle, railroad machinery, and shipbuilding branches are taken up regionally. Reference in this chapter is also made to the general transportation situation in the Soviet Union. A third section of the thesis is concerned with the production of metals (non-ferrous) within the U.S.S.R. Individual metals are treated separately, and chapters appear on the production of copper, lead and zinc, aluminum, nickel, manganese, gold,and tin. The geographic factors which affect the distribution of each metallic industry are mentioned, so as to clarify the reasons for their distribution as it exists in the U.S.S.R. Special problems of production (where applicable) are mentioned, such as those related to low grade ores, transport problems, and inadequate fuel supplies. The importance of the Kazakh S.S.R. and the Ural Mountains in metallic production is stressed in most cases. The last portion of the thesis discusses various industries which do not fall under any of the categories previously mentioned. The chemical industry of the U.S.S.R. is covered extensively in an important chapter on the subject. In the introductory statement which precedes the regional breakdown, the various raw materials needed by the chemical industry are taken up, so as to show to what use each is put. Raw materials used in fertilizer, synthetic rubber, and plastics production are mentioned, and the methods of converting them into the finished product are explained in a general manner. The natural rubber industry is briefly included in this chapter so as to keep rubber production (both synthetic and natural) together, and the Soviet sources of natural rubber are discussed along with the chemical industry raw material sources. In the section which follows the introduction the production of chemicals, fertilizers, plastics, rubber, and drugs in each region of the U.S.S.R. is investigated. Raw material deposits used by the industry in each area appear here also. The construction materials industry follows the chapter on the chemical industry, and such items as construction material sources, cement production, and mill capacities are treated. The relation between this industry and Soviet industrial development is drawn in the discussion. A chapter on the defense industries of the Soviet Union attempts to relate armament production to the non-defense industries, as well as discussing those which are currently turning out war goods. For example, a relation is made to tank and locomotive production in the U.S.S.R. The aircraft industry, normally being almost completely military in nature, is included within this chapter. Chemical plants which manufacture explosives are also found under the defense industry category. Because of a general scarcity of information on the subject of Soviet armament production, the information given in the chapter is of a general nature in most cases. The Soviet atomic energy industry, the geography of which was not available in any sources, is treated mainly with respect to its supplies of radioactive ores. The location of Soviet uranium ore deposits is studied, as well as the role played by satellite mining areas. No attempt is made to guess at the distribution of atomic energy plants. In the summary of the thesis the weaknesses, strengths, and probable future developments, of heavy industry in the U.S.S.R. are discussed.
Thesis (M.A.)--Boston University
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