Keyboard music of the early 17th century in Italy.
Slivkin, Elaine R
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The early 17th century was a time of change--change from a system of feudalism to one of absolute monarchy-from city-states to nations. With it, came conflicts, on the surface caused by religious differences, but basically, the result of the selfishness of the pettp princes and rulers within the countries. In France, because of wise rulers who felt that the end justified the means, the result was an absolute monarchy of the most absolute, with its concomitant "thought-control". The one justification of this may be that it was for the national good, in the long run. While in Italy, the Catholic Church was relatively secure, in France, there was a movement toward more and more secularization. The result was that while Italy became the leader in music for the organ(Church), France became the leader in music for the stringed keyboard instruments. Both countries And England looked, fundamentally, to vocal and dance forms in trying to find idiomatic media for both types of instruments. Music for the keyboard in Italy in the early 17th century centered around Frescobaldi. That of France centered around Chambonnieres. In England, music for the keyboard centered around Byrde, Bull, and Gibbons. Because of the social system of urban employment that existed at the time, some composers who were thus employed were free to travel and study as they desired. This had a favorable influence on the music of decimated Germany. Composers travelled to Italy and brought back with them the techniques of the Italian schools. These they blended with native elements, in developing their music. A truly national style arose at this time, based on the Protestant chorale. This was fostered by the work of Samuel Scheidt and his followers. Having once established a general instrumental medium (as opposed to vocal medium), there was a cross-mixture of instrumental media, or rather of instrumental devices. A parallel harmonic experimentation resulted in the evolution of the tonal center as it is known now. Formal devices moved one step further in the development of the fugue and sonata forms, as well as the dance-suite.
Thesis (M.A.)--Boston University. There is no page 48. Relevant musical notes inserted after each page.
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