Diffraction due to a circular aperture.
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Diffraction phenomena have been studied usually for the case when the aperture and other distances involved are large with respect to the wavelength. These treatments frequently have been based on Kirchhoff's formulation of Huygens' principle in which no attempt is made to satisfy Maxwell's equations or to satisfy the boundary conditions for the field vectors at the edge of the aperture. A rigorous treatment of the diffraction due to a circular aperture in an infinite conducting screen is not possible, but Bethe has developed an approximate method when the hole is small compared to the wavelength. Bethe's theory has been applied to the case of an incident plane wave (a) when the electric vector is parallel to the plane of incidence and (b) when the electric vector is perpendicular to the plane of incidence. Detailed calculations have been made in each case. The larger the wavelength for a given aperture or the smaller the aperture with respect to the wavelength, the more strongly will the radiation be concentrated toward the the axis. This concentration is more pronounced here than it would be in the optical region. [TRUNCATED]
Thesis (M.A.)--Boston University