Validation of the Youth Coach Issues Survey (YCIS): stress, coping, & burnout in youth sports coaches
Martin, Ira Hull
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The current investigation seeks to validate the Youth Coach Issues Scale (YCIS), a measure designed from the Coaching Issues Scale (Kelley & Baghurst, 2009). Although a considerable amount of research has examined the stressors, coping mechanisms, and nature of burnout experienced by college and world class coaches, the same level of attention to youth sport coaches' stress is missing from the literature (Frey, 2007). To further understand the nature of participant's stress, coping, and burnout, 1,005 youth sport coaches were recruited at USA Hockey Coach Education clinics within the northeast United States. A survey packet consisting of basic demographic questions, The Youth Coach Issues Survey (Martin & Naylor, In Preparation); The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981); The Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983); and the Coping Function Questionnaire (Kowalski & Crocker, 2001), was given. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the specified model fit the data well, indicating the YCIS as an effective measure, consistent with prior literature (Kelley & Baghurst, 2009; Martin & Naylor, In Preparation): X^2=2165.71, p<.O1; CFI= 0.88; RMSEA= 0.059, 90% CI =0.056-0.061. In addition the YCIS results demonstrated high internal consistency with all subscales as reliable measures (win-loss: α=0.886, time-role: α=0.849, parent-community: α=0.841, program-success: a=0.759, and athlete-concerns: a=0.690). Furthermore, the YCIS converged with other measures of stress and burnout, while not being strongly associated with a coping measure. Descriptive statistics showed program-success and time-role as the most stressful factors of coach stress, with win-loss being the least stressful. Correlation and mean analyses found significant positive associations among coach experience and stress associated with win-lose, time-role, and program-success. Finally, the YCIS showed to be an effective predictor of burnout. Specifically youth coach stress was positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Moreover, results showed that the effect of stress on burnout was dependent on coping mechanisms. Interaction analyses indicated that stress was a particularly salient predictor of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization for individuals who were more likely to use avoidant coping strategies. How youth coaches appraise and re-appraise particular stressors over time, as well as how they cope with demands, and function as an outcome of coping with perceived stressors are important aspects of coach education. Evidence from this investigation suggests that the YCIS can be a valuable measure of potentially problematic issues for youth coaches and may be beneficial for future youth coach research.
Thesis (Ed.D.)--Boston University