Total syntheses of sanggenon-type natural products and rearrangements of 3-substituted flavone ethers
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An efficient approach to the hydrobenzofuro[3,2-b]chromenone core of sanggenon-type natural products has been developed. The key transformation involves a protecting group-free double rearrangement of a bis-allyloxyflavone ether substrate. A sequence involving asymmetric 3-allyl rearrangement followed by aromatic Claisen rearrangement has been established for the asymmetric synthesis of the hydrobenzofuro[3,2-b]chromenone core structure. This methodology has been successfully applied to asymmetric syntheses of both sanggenol F and sanggenon A. Efficient chiral, racemic syntheses for sanggenons C and O have been achieved. The key transformation entails a biomimetic Diels-Alder cycloaddition between a flavonoid diene and a 2'-hydroxychalcone. The flavonoid diene was produced from a protected flavonoid chromene via isomerization. Metal-catalyzed alkynyl Claisen (Saucy-Marbet) rearrangements of 3-alkynyl flavone ethers have been evaluated, and a 1,2-acyl migration cascade which afforded novel furanyl benzofuranone scaffolds was discovered. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the rearrangement is likely initiated by 5-endo enyne cyclization to a platinum-containing spiro-oxocarbenium intermediate, which may be intercepted by methanol to produce a spirodihydrofuran or further rearranged to afford allenyl chromanediones and benzofuranones at higher reaction temperature. Lewis acid-catalyzed [1,3]-rearrangements of 3-aryl substituted flavone ethers have also been developed.