Fuzzy ART: Fast Stable Learning and Categorization of Analog Patterns by an Adaptive Resonance System
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A Fuzzy ART model capable of rapid stable learning of recognition categories in response to arbitrary sequences of analog or binary input patterns is described. Fuzzy ART incorporates computations from fuzzy set theory into the ART 1 neural network, which learns to categorize only binary input patterns. The generalization to learning both analog and binary input patterns is achieved by replacing appearances of the intersection operator (n) in AHT 1 by the MIN operator (Λ) of fuzzy set theory. The MIN operator reduces to the intersection operator in the binary case. Category proliferation is prevented by normalizing input vectors at a preprocessing stage. A normalization procedure called complement coding leads to a symmetric theory in which the MIN operator (Λ) and the MAX operator (v) of fuzzy set theory play complementary roles. Complement coding uses on-cells and off-cells to represent the input pattern, and preserves individual feature amplitudes while normalizing the total on-cell/off-cell vector. Learning is stable because all adaptive weights can only decrease in time. Decreasing weights correspond to increasing sizes of category "boxes". Smaller vigilance values lead to larger category boxes. Learning stops when the input space is covered by boxes. With fast learning and a finite input set of arbitrary size and composition, learning stabilizes after just one presentation of each input pattern. A fast-commit slow-recode option combines fast learning with a forgetting rule that buffers system memory against noise. Using this option, rare events can be rapidly learned, yet previously learned memories are not rapidly erased in response to statistically unreliable input fluctuations.