Adaptation and implementation of Open Dialogue in the United States
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In the last decade, many first-episode psychosis programs have been developed in the United States and elsewhere. First-episode psychosis typically affects adolescents and young adults. These programs, therefore, emphasize early intervention to alter long-term consequences and address specific needs of the affected population. Open Dialogue, which has shown promise in Finnish studies, is one such program that is gaining popularity outside of Finland. The program emphasizes active involvement of family and collaborative decision making. The three studies in this dissertation elucidate how Open Dialogue can contribute to current treatment options and describe considerations in adaptation and implementation of Open Dialogue in the United States. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework describing the role of evidence, context, and facilitation in successful implementation provides the theoretical basis for these studies. Study One is a systematic scoping review of the literature describing first-episode psychosis programs. Study Two is a qualitative study of stakeholder experiences in a pilot study of the Open Dialogue model in the United States. It examines perceived usefulness, contextual support, and factors facilitating participation. Study Three examines organizational characteristics that supported implementation at the agency where the program was piloted in the United States. The scoping review of first-episode psychosis programs indicates a need for further research regarding their long-term benefits, optimal duration and intensity, and critical components. Family intervention appears to be beneficial, suggesting that the Open Dialogue approach to family support might be a valuable addition warranting further investigation. Stakeholders involved in the Open Dialogue pilot identified several unique and beneficial features of the approach, focusing particularly on the value of family involvement, transparency, respectfulness, and collaborative nature of the approach. The compatibility of the Open Dialogue model with agency values, strong leadership support and vision, alongside organizational capacity to deliver the services emerge as critical factors in successful implementation of the model in the pilot study. As per the PARiHS framework, contextual factors, particularly funding of this model of services in the United States healthcare environment are key determinants to address for the future implementation of Open Dialogue in the United States.