In-vitro beverage discoloration, stain removal and tooth-brushing abrasion of crown and bridge provisional materials
Oliveros Soles, Justine
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PURPOSE: To determine the potential discoloration of provisional materials by exposure to beverages and evaluate the efficacy of simulated tooth-brushing on stain removal and the effect on surface roughness. METHODS: Materials included: Jet Set-4 (Lang), Protemp Plus (3M ESPE), Luxatemp (DMG), Artbloc (Merz), Telio-CAD (Ivoclar), and Vita-CAD (Vita). Specimens (n=10/group) were immersed in: distilled water, coffee, red wine, tea, coke and cranberry juice. Color measurements were taken (Xritei5 spectrophotometer) at: baseline, 24 hours, 4 and 8 weeks. Specimens in coffee and red wine for 8 weeks were exposed to tooth-brushing for three minutes and color measurements were taken subsequently. Color differences (ΔE) after treatments were calculated using one-way ANOVA, MANOVA and post hoc Tukey test. Another group of specimens (n=10/group) were exposed to tooth-brushing under a 1.91N load using toothpaste slurry (Crest® Cavity Protection) for 20,000 cycles in two modes: soft and medium bristles (both Oral B Indicator®). Surface roughness was measured using a Mitutoyo SJ201 profilometer before and after brushing. Surface roughness Ra values were compared using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test. RESULTS: Coke and water had no significant discoloration effect (p>0.05). Red wine and coffee exhibited the highest discoloration effect. CAD-CAM blocks showed significantly lower color change, at all durations, and after brushing (p<0.001). Tooth-brushing had a significant effect (Ra) on Telio-CAD, Artbloc, Jet Set-4 and Vita-CAD. Protemp-Plus and Luxatemp groups showed no significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional materials showed less color stability when compared to CAD/CAM blocks. Tooth-brushing effect varies depending on bristle and material type.