Examining the motivations for social entrepreneurship using Max Weber's typology of rationality
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Citation (published version)Makarand Mody, Jonathon Day, Sandra Sydnor, William Jaffe. 2016. "Examining the motivations for social entrepreneurship using Max Weber's typology of rationality." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT, Volume 28, Issue 6, pp. 1094 - 1114 (21).
PURPOSE: This paper aims to utilize a framework from classic sociology – Max Weber’s Typology of Rationality – to understand the motivations for social entrepreneurship in responsible tourism in India. The critical role of the social entrepreneur in effecting the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship has been largely under-recognized. The authors seek to explore, develop and enhance Weber’s theoretical arguments in the context of the tourism industry. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a constructivism paradigm and Seidman’s (2006) Three Interview Series technique to obtain the narratives of two social entrepreneurs in India. Data were analyzed using a hybrid thematic coding procedure. FINDINGS: Findings indicate that there exists a dynamic interplay between the formal and substantive rationalities that underlie the behavior of social entrepreneurs. The authors also discuss how entrepreneurs draw upon their formal and substantive repertoires to create their identities through the simultaneous processes of apposition (“Me”) and opposition (“Not Me”). PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings provide an important recognition of the impact of formal and substantive rationalities on the conceptualization, implementation and manifestation of social enterprise for a variety of stakeholders. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This paper makes a significant contribution to understanding the why and the how of social entrepreneurship in responsible tourism. It provides a framework that can be widely applied to develop and enhance Weberian theory and further the understanding of the fundamental nature of human behavioral phenomena in tourism and beyond.