Glioblastoma multiforme: etiology, progression, and treatment
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Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and malignant brain tumor, accounting for more than 52% of all primary brain tumors. The molecular heterogeneity of the tumor has made it difficult to treat, and even more difficult to cure. Due to the high mortality rate associated with the current treatments used, new innovative medical techniques are being explored. Prominent treatments that are currently being investigated are immune based therapies, focused on checkpoint inhibitors and biomarkers, the use of 2-deoxy-D-glucose to initiate tumor cell apoptosis, and the induction of alterations in DNA and miRNA to inhibit glioblastoma stem cell accelerated growth and tumorigenesis. Throughout the paper, various ongoing studies are summarized and discussed to compare the outcomes of different treatments. The goal of this paper is to present the different therapies and analyze which one of them is the most effective in treating and prolonging survival for patients with glioblastoma multiforme. This thesis reviewed the large collection of publications about glioblastoma multiforme and treatments for the disease. The use of immune based therapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors and biomarkers, are increasingly delivering promising results as an immunotherapy approach, but it is necessary to complete the phase III trials in order to truly know if these products are successful as anticancer agents or if further research into the matter is required. More research must be done to find the best route of treatment. In addition, the use of 2-deoxy-D-glucose has been successful in treating other types of cancer, such as breast cancer, and now studies look promising in GBM patients. This treatment is still in its initial stages of testing, so more work will need to be done to determine how efficacious this treatment is. By comparing the results of the different therapeutic agents, it was determined that genetic alterations seemed to be the most promising avenue of treatment with current information. The data showed that the greatest increase in survival time and least recurrence was achieved by MGMT promoter methylation and gene modifications of the tumor. Though these treatments have varying results in their efficacy and there are many different combinations of medications that have yet to be assessed, research in the area is greatly advancing and increasing the lives of GBM patients. By allocating resources in the best possible treatment, researchers can change the fatal prognosis of this illness.