Physical properties of a novel fluoride-containing bioactive glass composite
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OBJECTIVES: To compare the amount of fluoride, calcium and phosphate release and recharge of a fluoride containing bioactive glass composite to a conventional resin composite and a resin modified glass ionomer cement at different time points. Furthermore, bond strength of a fluoride containing bioactive glass composite, a conventional flowable composite, and a resin modified glass ionomer cement to metal orthodontic brackets was evaluated. METHODS: A fluoride containing bioactive glass (BG) was synthesized using a sol-gel method and mixed homogeneously with an unfilled resin. For ion release and recharge, resin modified glass ionomer (RMGIC), Photac Fil Quick Aplicap (3M/ESPE) and flowable composite (Control), Filtek Supreme Ultra (Kerr), were used for comparison. Disc shape samples were fabricated using custom aluminum mold (1 mm in thickness and 9 mm in diameter, (n=5 for each material) and stored in 15 mL deionized water at 37°C until the testing time. The amounts of fluoride, calcium, and phosphate ions released were evaluated at different time points: 1 hour, 24 hours, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days 6 days and 7 days. At each time point, all of the storage solution was extracted, and 7.5 mL was used for fluoride release measurement and the remaining 7.5 mL for calcium and phosphate ion release measurements. After solution extraction, the samples were replaced in 15 mL fresh deionized water at 37°C until the next sampling time point. Ionic recharge was performed with 5% sodium fluoride varnish (FluoroDose, Centrix) and MI paste plus (GC) following the ion release-testing period. An ion meter with a Fluoride ionic selective electrode were used to determine fluoride concentration. A Microwave-Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (MP-AES) was used to test the concentration of the calcium and phosphate. For the shear bond strength test, rectangular shaped ceramic samples with the dimensions of 2 mm x 12 mm x 14 mm (Vita Mark II, Vita) were fabricated. Standard edgewise-metal brackets (American Orthodontics) were bonded to the center of the ceramic samples using tested material (n=10 for each material). Excess material was removed, and the cementing materials were polymerized from each side for 20 seconds. Specimens were either stored in water for 24 hours at 37o C or went under thermocycling for 5000 cycles. After the storage period, the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test using an Instron universal machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. Loads to failure were recorded to calculate shear bond strength. Comparison of released/recharged ions and shear bond strength were done by ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD (α = 0.05) using JMP Pro 13. RESULTS: RMGIC showed significantly higher fluoride release and recharge than BG composite and the control. BG showed significantly higher Ca and P ion release compared to RMGIC followed by composite. RMGIC and BG showed significant ion recharge capability compared to composite. For the shear bond strength, the control composite showed significantly higher shear bond strength than BG composite followed by RMGIC. Thermocycling significantly increase bond strength for RMGIC and control but not for BG composite. CONCLUSIONS: 1. A fluoride containing bioactive glass composite was fabricated that showed the ability of ion release and recharge. 2. There was a significant difference in the amount of ion release and recharge among tested materials at different time points. 3. Favorable fluoride, calcium and phosphate ion release and recharge of BG composite were maintained over the testing period. 4. BG composite showed favorable bond strength to orthodontic metal brackets. 5. Thermocycling had a significant influence in bond strength for the materials tested except for BG composite.