Colorectal cancer: a literature review
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a cancer caused by uncontrolled cell growth in the colon, rectum, or appendix. It has been shown through genetic analysis that cancers of the colon and rectum are genetically the same. Symptoms of these types of cancers include rectal bleeding and anemia. These symptoms are sometimes associated with weight loss or bowel changes. Colorectal cancers generally progress due to environmental factors, one’s lifestyle and increasing age. Very few cases are associated with genetic disorders. Inflammatory conditions have also been shown to favor the development of CRC; patients with inflammatory bowel disease have an annual risk increase of 1% per year. Despite improvements in screening, detection, and treatment, CRC is currently the third most common cancer, and accounts for over 1 million diagnoses and half a mil-lion deaths per year, which is equivalent to approximately 8% of cancer-related deaths worldwide. This review will discuss several factors of colorectal cancer, including risk factors, genes involved, incidence, and mortality. And in doing so, it will become obvious that more efforts must be made into research of colorectal cancer, and public health education about the risk factors of the disease.