Methods of Chebyshev approximation
Rosman, Bernard Harvey
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This paper deals with methods of Chebyshev approximation. In particular polynomial approximation of continuous functions on a finite interval are discussed. Chapter I deals with the existence and uniqueness of Chebyshev or C-polynomials. In addition, some properties of the extremal points of the error function are derived, where the error fUnction E(x) = f(x) - p(x), p(x) being the C-polynomial. Chapter II discusses a method for finding the C-polynomial of degree n--the exchange method. After choosing a set of n+2 distinct abscissas, or a reference set, the so-called levelled reference polynomial is computed by the method of divided differences or by using the approximation errors of this polynomial. A point xj of maximal error is obtained and introduced into a new reference. A new levelled reference polynomial is then computed. This process continues until a reference is gotten, whose reference deviation equals the maximal approximating error of the levelled reference polynomial. The reference deviation is the common absolute value of the levelled reference polynomial at each of the reference points. The levelled reference polynomial for this reference is then shown to be the desired C-polynomial. Chapter III deals with phase methods for constructing the a-polynomial. It is shown that under suitable restrictions, if a Pn, A and €(phi) can be found such that the basic relation f(cos phi) = Pn(cos phi) + A cos[(n+1)phi + E(phi)] is satisfied on the approximation interval, then Pn is the a-polynomial. Two methods for finding the amplitude A and the phase function €(phi) are discussed. The complex method assumes f to be analytic on a domain and uses Cauchy's integral formula to obtain new values of €(phi), starting with a set of initial values. These values in turn generate new values of Pn and A. The values of Pn as well as values of A and €(phi) at certain points are gotten through convergence of this iterative scheme. Then an interpolation formula is used to obtain Pn from its values at these points. The second method attempts to find A, €(phi) and Pn so as to satisfy the basic relation only on a discrete set of points. First, assuming €(phi) so small that cos €(phi) may be replaced by 1, an expression is obtained for Pn(cos phi). In the general case, a system of phase equations is given, from which €(phi), A and hence Pn may be obtained. Although these results are valid only on a discrete set of points in the approximation interval, the polynomial derived in this way represents a good approximation to f(x).
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