Study of Gaussian processes, Lévy processes and infinitely divisible distributions
Veillette, Mark S.
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In this thesis, we study distribution functions and distributional-related quantities for various stochastic processes and probability distributions, including Gaussian processes, inverse Levy subordinators, Poisson stochastic integrals, non-negative infinitely divisible distributions and the Rosenblatt distribution. We obtain analytical results for each case, and in instances where no closed form exists for the distribution, we provide numerical solutions. We mainly use two methods to analyze such distributions. In some cases, we characterize distribution functions by viewing them as solutions to differential equations. These are used to obtain moments and distributions functions of the underlying random variables. In other cases, we obtain results using inversion of Laplace or Fourier transforms. These methods include the Post-Widder inversion formula for Laplace transforms, and Edgeworth approximations. In Chapter 1, we consider differential equations related to Gaussian processes. It is well known that the heat equation together with appropriate initial conditions characterize the marginal distribution of Brownian motion. We generalize this connection to finite dimensional distributions of arbitrary Gaussian processes. In Chapter 2, we study the inverses of Levy subordinators. These processes are non-Markovian and their finite-dimensional distributions are not known in closed form. We derive a differential equation related to these processes and use it to find an expression for joint moments. We compute numerically these joint moments in Chapter 3 and include several examples. Chapter 4 considers Poisson stochastic integrals. We show that the distribution function of these random variables satisfies a Kolmogorov-Feller equation, and we describe the regularity of solutions and numerically solve this equation. Chapter 5 presents a technique for computing the density function or distribution function of any non-negative infinitely divisible distribution based on the Post-Widder method. In Chapter 6, we consider a distribution given by an infinite sum of weighted gamma distributions. We derive the Levy-Khintchine representation and show when the tail of this sum is asymptotically normal. We derive a Berry-Essen bound and Edgeworth expansions for its distribution function. Finally, in Chapter 7 we look at the Rosenblatt distribution, which can be expressed as a infinite sum of weighted chi-squared distributions. We apply the expansions in Chapter 6 to compute its distribution function.
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