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dc.contributor.authorWei, Guoxianen_US
dc.contributor.authorHelmerhorst, Eva J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDarwish, Ghassanen_US
dc.contributor.authorBlumenkranz, Gabrielen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchuppan, Detlefen_US
dc.coverage.spatialSwitzerlanden_US
dc.date2020-07-10
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-22T19:08:11Z
dc.date.available2021-02-22T19:08:11Z
dc.date.issued2020-07-15
dc.identifierhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32679754
dc.identifier.citationGuoxian Wei, Eva J Helmerhorst, Ghassan Darwish, Gabriel Blumenkranz, Detlef Schuppan. 2020. "Gluten Degrading Enzymes for Treatment of Celiac Disease.." Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 7, https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072095
dc.identifier.issn2072-6643
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2144/42078
dc.description.abstractCeliac disease (CeD) affects about 1% of most world populations. It presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from minor symptoms to mild or severe malabsorption, and it may be associated with a wide variety of autoimmune diseases. CeD is triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat and related grains. Gluten peptides that resist gastrointestinal digestion are antigenically presented to gluten specific T cells in the intestinal mucosa via HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8, the necessary genetic predisposition for CeD. To date, there is no effective or approved treatment for CeD other than a strict adherence to a gluten-free diet, which is difficult to maintain in professional or social environments. Moreover, many patients with CeD have active disease despite diet adherence due to a high sensitivity to traces of gluten. Therefore, safe pharmacological treatments that complement the gluten-free diet are urgently needed. Oral enzyme therapy, employing gluten-degrading enzymes, is a promising therapeutic approach. A prerequisite is that such enzymes are active under gastro-duodenal conditions, quickly neutralize the T cell activating gluten peptides and are safe for human consumption. Several enzymes including prolyl endopeptidases, cysteine proteases and subtilisins can cleave the human digestion-resistant gluten peptides in vitro and in vivo. Examples are several prolyl endopeptidases from bacterial sources, subtilisins from Rothia bacteria that are natural oral colonizers and synthetic enzymes with optimized gluten-degrading activities. Without exception, these enzymes must cleave the otherwise unusual glutamine and proline-rich domains characteristic of antigenic gluten peptides. Moreover, they should be stable and active in both the acidic environment of the stomach and under near neutral pH in the duodenum. This review focuses on those enzymes that have been characterized and evaluated for the treatment of CeD, discussing their origin and activities, their clinical evaluation and challenges for therapeutic application. Novel developments include strategies like enteric coating and genetic modification to increase enzyme stability in the digestive tract.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDFG Schu 646/17-1 (wheat and ATI), DFG Schu 646/20-1 (Allergy), DFG Pic/Schu SPP1656 (Intestinal microbiota) - German Research Foundation; SAW-2016-DFA-2 (Wheatscan) - The Leibniz Foundation; R01 AI087803 (EJH), K02 AI101067 (EJH) - NIH HHSen_US
dc.description.urihttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32679754
dc.languageeng
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.relation.ispartofNutrients
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectAutoimmunityen_US
dc.subjectCeliac diseaseen_US
dc.subjectEndopeptidaseen_US
dc.subjectEnteric coatingen_US
dc.subjectEnzyme therapyen_US
dc.subjectGlutenen_US
dc.subjectGlutenaseen_US
dc.subjectTreatmenten_US
dc.subjectWheaten_US
dc.subjectFood sciencesen_US
dc.subjectNutrition and dieteticsen_US
dc.titleGluten degrading enzymes for treatment of celiac diseaseen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/nu12072095
pubs.elements-sourcepubmeden_US
pubs.notesEmbargo: Not knownen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston Universityen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent Collegeen_US
pubs.organisational-groupBoston University, College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent College, Physical Therapy and Athletic Trainingen_US
pubs.publication-statusPublished onlineen_US
dc.date.online2020-07-15
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0001-5115-3697 (Wei, Guoxian)
dc.description.oaversionPublished version
dc.identifier.mycv587163


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Copyright © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).