Nonuniversal entanglement level statistics in projection-driven quantum circuits and glassy dynamics in classical computation circuits
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In this thesis, I describe research results on three topics : (i) a phase transition in the area-law regime of quantum circuits driven by projection measurements; (ii) ultra slow dynamics in two dimensional spin circuits; and (iii) tensor network methods applied to boolean satisfiability problems. (i) Nonuniversal entanglement level statistics in projection-driven quantum circuits; Non-thermalized closed quantum many-body systems have drawn considerable attention, due to their relevance to experimentally controllable quantum systems. In the first part of the thesis, we study the level-spacing statistics in the entanglement spectrum of output states of random universal quantum circuits where, at each time step, qubits are subject to a finite probability of projection onto states of the computational basis. We encounter two phase transitions with increasing projection rate: The first is the volume-to-area law transition observed in quantum circuits with projective measurements; The second separates the pure Poisson level statistics phase at large projective measurement rates from a regime of residual level repulsion in the entanglement spectrum within the area-law phase, characterized by non-universal level spacing statistics that interpolates between the Wigner-Dyson and Poisson distributions. The same behavior is observed in both circuits of random two-qubit unitaries and circuits of universal gates, including the set implemented by Google in its Sycamore circuits. (ii) Ultra-slow dynamics in a translationally invariant spin model for multiplication and factorization; Slow relaxation of glassy systems in the absence of disorder remains one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter physics. In the second part of the thesis we investigate slow relaxation in a classical model of short-range interacting Ising spins on a translationally invariant two-dimensional lattice that mimics a reversible circuit that, depending on the choice of boundary conditions, either multiplies or factorizes integers. We prove that, for open boundary conditions, the model exhibits no finite-temperature phase transition. Yet we find that it displays glassy dynamics with astronomically slow relaxation times, numerically consistent with a double exponential dependence on the inverse temperature. The slowness of the dynamics arises due to errors that occur during thermal annealing that cost little energy but flip an extensive number of spins. We argue that the energy barrier that needs to be overcome in order to heal such defects scales linearly with the correlation length, which diverges exponentially with inverse temperature, thus yielding the double exponential behavior of the relaxation time. (iii) Reversible circuit embedding on tensor networks for Boolean satisfiability; Finally, in the third part of the thesis we present an embedding of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problems on a two-dimensional tensor network. The embedding uses reversible circuits encoded into the tensor network whose trace counts the number of solutions of the satisfiability problem. We specifically present the formulation of #2SAT, #3SAT, and #3XORSAT formulas into planar tensor networks. We use a compression-decimation algorithm introduced by us to propagate constraints in the network before coarse-graining the boundary tensors. Iterations of these two steps gradually collapse the network while slowing down the growth of bond dimensions. For the case of #3XORSAT, we show numerically that this procedure recognizes, at least partially, the simplicity of XOR constraints for which it achieves subexponential time to solution. For a #P-complete subset of #2SAT we find that our algorithm scales with size in the same way as state-of-the-art #SAT counters, albeit with a larger prefactor. We find that the compression step performs less efficiently for #3SAT than for #2SAT.