Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Query Processing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks
MetadataShow full item record
Personal communication devices are increasingly equipped with sensors that are able to collect and locally store information from their environs. The mobility of users carrying such devices, and hence the mobility of sensor readings in space and time, opens new horizons for interesting applications. In particular, we envision a system in which the collective sensing, storage and communication resources, and mobility of these devices could be leveraged to query the state of (possibly remote) neighborhoods. Such queries would have spatio-temporal constraints which must be met for the query answers to be useful. Using a simplified mobility model, we analytically quantify the benefits from cooperation (in terms of the system's ability to satisfy spatio-temporal constraints), which we show to go beyond simple space-time tradeoffs. In managing the limited storage resources of such cooperative systems, the goal should be to minimize the number of unsatisfiable spatio-temporal constraints. We show that Data Centric Storage (DCS), or "directed placement", is a viable approach for achieving this goal, but only when the underlying network is well connected. Alternatively, we propose, "amorphous placement", in which sensory samples are cached locally, and shuffling of cached samples is used to diffuse the sensory data throughout the whole network. We evaluate conditions under which directed versus amorphous placement strategies would be more efficient. These results lead us to propose a hybrid placement strategy, in which the spatio-temporal constraints associated with a sensory data type determine the most appropriate placement strategy for that data type. We perform an extensive simulation study to evaluate the performance of directed, amorphous, and hybrid placement protocols when applied to queries that are subject to timing constraints. Our results show that, directed placement is better for queries with moderately tight deadlines, whereas amorphous placement is better for queries with looser deadlines, and that under most operational conditions, the hybrid technique gives the best compromise.